Phytochemical screening and antioxidant properties of stingless bee Geniotrigona thoracica propolis


  • Ainur Awanis Mohd Badiazaman Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Nur Basyirah Md Zin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Aulia Rani Annisava Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Nor Elani Mat Nafi Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Khamsah Suryati Mohd Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin



Stingless bee, propolis, Geniotrigona thoracica, TLC profiling, antioxidant


Propolis is a gum-like product that collected by bees from plants and it varies in colour range from light yellow to dark brown. The chemical composition of propolis depends on various factors such as vegetation, season and environmental conditions of the sample collection. The aim of the study was to determine the chemical profile and antioxidant properties of crude methanol extract of Geniotrigona thoracica propolis from five localities, namely Besut (BST), Dungun (DGN), Lundang (LDG), Tanah Merah (TM) and Gua Musang (GM). Phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography (TLC) showed the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, essential oils and unsaturated and aromatic compounds. The extracts displayed different characteristics of chemical profile that varied from each other. The antioxidant properties of extracts were evaluated based on total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging activity. Propolis from Gua Musang (GM) exhibited the highest total phenolic content with 23.43 ± 0.50 mg GAE/g extract while propolis from Besut (BST) exhibited the highest total flavonoids content with 17.22 ± 0.16 mg QE/g extract and showed the lowest IC50 with 53 µg/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activities. As a result, Geniotrigona thoracica from Besut (BST) could be considered as a good source of antioxidant due to its antioxidant properties.

Author Biographies

Ainur Awanis Mohd Badiazaman, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry

Nur Basyirah Md Zin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry

Aulia Rani Annisava, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry

Nor Elani Mat Nafi, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry

Khamsah Suryati Mohd, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

School of Agriculture Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry


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