Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences <p><strong>Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS)</strong><br />Indexed by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a></strong>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>SCImago Journal Rank</strong></a>, and <strong><a href=";hide_exact_match_fl=true&amp;utm_source=mjl&amp;utm_medium=share-by-link&amp;utm_campaign=search-results-share-this-journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a></strong></p> <p>Journal abbreviation: <strong>Mal. J. Fund. Appl. Sci.</strong> <br /><strong>ISSN: 2289-5981. e-ISSN: 2289-599X.</strong></p> <p>Editor-in-Chief: <strong><a href="">Hadi Nur</a></strong></p> <p>The Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS) (formerly known as Journal of Fundamental Sciences (2005-2011), ISSN: 1823-626X) is a refereed research journal. The aims and scope of the journal encompass research articles, original research reports, reviews, short communications, and scientific commentaries from fundamental principles to practical applications in the broad field of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at <a href="">Online Submissions</a>. For acceptance in MJFAS, a manuscript must be the right fit with <a href="">the journal's focus and scope</a>. A fee of <strong>RM 630 is payable</strong> by the author or research funder to cover costs associated with publication once the paper is accepted to be published in 2023. </p> Penerbit UTM Press en-US Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 2289-5981 Finite Element Analysis of Biomagnetic Fluid Flow in a Channel with an Overlapping Stenosis <p>Analysis of biomagnetic fluid (blood) flow (BFD) is important due to the potential biomedical applications that have been proposed such as cell separation for magnetic devices, drug delivery using magnetic particles for the treatment of cancer tumours, hyperthermia, and the reduction of bleeding during surgeries. In this study, the effects of spatially varying magnetic field on a straight channel with an overlapping stenosis is investigated numerically using finite element method (FEM). The mathematical model of biomagnetic fluid is constructed based on the coupled study of Navier-Stokes equations with the principles of ferrohydrodynamic (FHD). While the flow in a constricted artery is considered to be Newtonian, steady, two-dimensional and isothermal. Galerkin finite element method is used to discretize the governing equations and then the source code is developed by using MATLAB software. The source code is validated, and the results is compared with the previous literature. Based on the findings, the introduction of magnetic field alters the behaviour of blood flow in the area near the magnetic source. The increment of magnetic field intensity near stenosis area causes the recirculation area downstream to become smaller. This could be seen from the velocity profile and streamline pattern of constricted artery.</p> Normazni Abdullah Zuhaila Ismail Copyright (c) 2022 NORMAZNI ABDULLAH, ZUHAILA ISMAIL 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 618 629 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2442 Identification of Flavonoids of Kalanchoe Pinnata as Candidate Drugs for COVID-19 Gamma-Variant Treatment <p>Treatment of COVID-19 that is based on plants could be a more cost-effective therapy against the disease. Flavonoids, a group of compounds that have been observed to have various effects, including antiviral activity, were chosen as the candidate molecule for treatment of COVID-19. <em>Kalanchoe Pinnata</em> is one of the plants containing flavonoids that has been demonstrated to have antiviral activity. The structure of ACE2 and various flavonoids were retrieved and cleaned from unnecessary residues. The ACE2 structure was subjected to molecular docking in order to analyze the binding affinity. Following that, the ADME properties of each flavonoid were analyzed accordingly. The QSAR analysis was also performed for each type of flavonoid. Lastly, molecular dynamics simulation was conducted. All of the tested compounds were able to bind to human ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, but were unable to compete with them as the binding affinity of the compounds to the protein were lower compared to ACE2-Spike interaction. The ADME and toxicity analysis showed that most of the ligands were able to be absorbed by the GI tract, but have low bioavailability. The compounds also cause no major toxicity effects and were able to be sufficiently distributed to the body. Molecular dynamics analysis also revealed that among the compounds, quercetin and rutin were able to interact with ACE2 and Spike protein stably. The QSAR analysis showed that friedelin, kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin are mostly non-toxic, but the high Cramer values indicate that there are no initial safety impressions for these molecules and could cause toxicity. In conclusion, quercetin and rutin have potential to be a candidate for COVID-19 drug development based on the in-silico predictions results obtained. Friedelin and Narcissin whose affinity to the proteins were relatively stronger but had unstable interactions from molecular dynamics simulation results, may also be a potential COVID-19 treatment with further investigation. However, further research is required to assess the effectiveness and also specially to measure the toxicity of the compounds.</p> Yulia Aurora Immanuella Putri N Tarigan Nio Meinwen Metta Suryanto Pramujinoto Santosa Viona Pricillia Arli Aditya Parikesit Copyright (c) 2022 Yulia Aurora, Immanuella Putri N Tarigan, Nio Meinwen Metta Suryanto, Pramujinoto Santosa, Viona Pricillia, Arli Aditya Parikesit 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 630 643 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2594 Repurposing Mitragynine as Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Agent Evidenced by In Silico Predictive Approach <p>The ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) catastrophe calls for the development of therapeutic approaches to combat the disease. Therefore, an <em>in silico </em>study was conducted to evaluate druggability capacity of mitragynine, a natural indole alkaloid compound, using adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) prediction and molecular docking simulation to the region binding domain of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 RBD). The pharmacodynamics of mitragynine were evaluated for its druggability using SwissADME software, and molecular docking simulation was performed using using AutoDock software, using SARS-CoV-2 RBD (PDB ID: 6M0J) as the protein target retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB). ADME predicted that this compound has excellent druggability, transport properties, and pharmacokinetics, following Lipinski’s rule of five. Mitragynine is also nonmutagenic based on the AMES toxicity test. No PAINS alert was observed and synthetic acceptability score was 4.49, suggesting a moderately synthesised compound. Through the molecular docking approach, mitragynine successfully docked the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 RBD with a binding energy of -6.3kcal/mol and formed hydrogen bonds with the residue N501, which is one of the residues at the binding site of RBD. These findings, together with other therapeutic qualities of mitragynine warrant for more research into molecular dynamics, <em>in vitro</em>, and <em>in vivo</em> studies in COVID-19 therapy.</p> Fatahiya Mohamed Tap Nor Hafizah Zakaria Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid Moyeenul Huq AKM Jamia Azdina Jamal Copyright (c) 2022 Fatahiya Mohamed Tap, Nor Hafizah Zakaria, Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid, Moyeenul Huq AKM, Jamia Azdina Jamal 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 644 653 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2637 Artificial Bee Colony for Logic Mining in Credit Scoring <p>During the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) pandemic, credit applications skyrocketed unimaginably. Thus, creditors or financial entities were burdened with information overload to ensure they provided the proper credit to the right person. The existing methods employed by financial entities were prone to overfitting and did not provide any information regarding the behavior of the creditor. However, the outcome did not consider the attribute of the creditor that led to the default outcome. In this paper, a swarm intelligence-based algorithm named Artificial Bee Colony has been implemented to optimize the learning phase of the Hopfield Neural Network with 2 Satisfiability-based Reverse Analysis Methods. The proposed hybrid model will be used to extract logical information in the credit data with more than 80% accuracy compared to the existing method. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid model was evaluated and showed superior results compared to other models.</p> Siti Zulaikha Mohd Jamaludin Nur Syazwani Sa’ari Mohd Shareduwan Mohd Kasihmuddin Muhammad Fadhil Marsani Nur Ezlin Zamri Siti Aishah Azhar Yueling Guo Mohd. Asyraf Mansor Copyright (c) 2022 Siti Zulaikha Mohd Jamaludin, Nur Syazwani Sa’ari, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd Kasihmuddin, Muhammad Fadhil Marsani, Nur Ezlin Zamri, Siti Aishah Azhar, Yueling Guo, Mohd. Asyraf Mansor 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 654 673 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2661 Novel Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) of Single Garlic Extract: Bio-accessibility, Cytotoxicity, and Anti-Inflammatory Studies <p>Single garlic has many health benefits in which the active compound content five times higher than regular garlic. However, the utilization of the active compound in single garlic was not optimal due to its lipophilic characteristics, volatility, and low stability in gastrointestinal fluids. Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) has the potential to control the release rate of the active compounds and lead to increase bioavailability in the digestive tract. The study aimed to formulate SNEDDS for single garlic extract (SGE) to increase its bioaccessibility and anti-inflammatory potentials. SNEDDS-SGE was formulated with Tween-80, PEG-400, canola oil, and SGE. SNEDDS-SGE was characterized by response tests including emulsification time, emulsion pH, and transmittance; morphology and droplet size of SNEDDS using TEM; and SGE stability in SNEDDS was evaluated by in vitro gastrointestinal simulation. The cytotoxicity of SNEDDS-SGE was tested using MTT assay, and its anti-inflammatory potential on IL-1ß expression was assessed by the immunocytochemistry (ICC) method on TIG-1 cells induced by methylglyoxal. Response test data and characterization of SNEDDS-SGE were analyzed descriptively, bioaccessibility data were analyzed by T-test, cytotoxicity test by linear regression, IL-1β and C/EBPα expression data by One-way ANOVA. The results showed that SNEDDS-SGE had a fast emulsification time of 41.913 seconds, a stable pH of 7.56, and a high transmittance percentage of 98.027%. The SNEDDS-SGE droplet has a uniform shape with a size of less than 100 nm. SNEDDS-SGE was able to increase the bioaccessibility of SGE by 89.34% for allicin and 89.31% for alliin, also non-toxic at concentrations below 1000 µg/ml. SNEDDS was able to significantly increase the effect of SGE in suppressing the expression of IL-1ß at all concentrations of SNEDDS-SGE 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml with the lowest decreased expression of 44.82 ± 4.30 AU. Our study suggested that SNEDDS has the potential to enhance the biological effects of SGE, as well as being a promising anti-inflammatory agent.</p> Sri Rahayu Lestari Putri Elok Septiana Dewi Siti Imroatul Maslikah Abdul Gofur Yuslinda Annisa Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek Sunaryono Hendra Susanto Hidajah Rachmawati Rony Irwanto Copyright (c) 2022 Sri Rahayu Lestari, Putri Elok Septiana Dewi, Siti Imroatul Maslikah, Abdul Gofur, Fauziatul Fajaroh, Yuslinda Annisa, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik Malek 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 674 683 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2682 Molecular Identification of Podosphaera xanthii and the Susceptibility of Vigna Species Genotypes to Natural Infection of Powdery Mildew <p>Powdery mildew was observed on 20 genotypes of <em>Vigna unguiculata </em>subsp<em>. sesquipedalis </em>(yardlong beans) and 33 genotypes of <em>V. radiata </em>(mungbean) in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Powdery mildew was collected and then subjected to molecular characterization to identify the species associated with the disease. Based on combined microscopic observations and molecular identification, the species causing powdery mildew to yardlong bean and mungbean was <em>Podosphaera xanthii </em>(Castagne) U. Braun &amp; S. Takam. 2000 (Bas.: <em>Erysiphe xanthii</em> 1845). None of the yardlong beans and mungbean genotypes were resistant to powdery mildew, with disease incidence reaching up to 100% and with fungal colonies present on plant vines and both sides of leaves. This is the first report of powdery mildew disease caused by <em>P. xanthii</em> on yardlong bean and mungbean in the country. Both legume plant species are important food crops in the Philippines. The information from this study will be valuable in formulating other disease management approaches. The lack of resistant plants warrants further screening in legume germplasm collection to identify sources of resistance or tolerance.</p> Herbert Dustin Aumentado Mark Angelo Balendres Copyright (c) 2022 Herbert Dustin Aumentado, Mark Angelo Balendres 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 684 692 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2701 Expression Analysis of OsWRKY11 and OsNAC2 Genes in New Malaysian Drought-tolerance Rice Cultivar MR303 <p>Local drought-tolerant rice variety MR303 (<em>Oryza sativa</em> spp. <em>Indica</em>) has higher tolerance towards abiotic stress while maintaining its high yield and grain quality. Expression of <em>OsWRKY11</em> has shown to be a positive modulator while <em>OsNAC2</em> is a negative modulator for drought-tolerance in <em>Oryza sativa</em> spp. <em>Japonica</em>. However, these transcription factor (TF) genes regulation are species-specific and its regulation may differ in our local rice variety. Thus, our study aimed to identify the relative expression of these genes and its effects on plant morphology and drought-tolerance capabilities. Our results on relative expression of <em>OsWRKY11</em> in the MR303 rice variety showed that under drought stress, this gene was highly expressed. This result was similar to previous findings in <em>Oryza sativa</em> spp. <em>Japonica</em>. However, for <em>OsNAC2</em> gene expression, our results contradict with previous findings where under drought stress, this gene was also highly expressed instead of downregulated. These results suggest that our local rice variety may have different gene regulation under drought stress compared to other rice varieties. Proline assay showed that proline contents in drought-treated plant has increased 10 times compared to control which associated with drought-tolerance activities. Further studies may be conducted to gain better understanding on the roles of these genes in regulating drought-responsive genes in the local variety.</p> Iqmal Asyraf Ilias Alina Wagiran Kamalrul Azlan Azizan Abdul Fatah A. Samad Copyright (c) 2022 Iqmal Asyraf Ilias, Alina Wagiran, Kamalrul Azlan Azizan, Abdul Fatah A. Samad 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 693 702 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2717 Evaluation of Static Electric Field Exposure on Histopathological Structure and Function of Kidney and Liver in DMBA-Induced RAT (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) <p>Intermediate frequency and low intensity static electric field have been developed for non-invasive cancer therapy nowadays. The evaluation of the vital organs, one of which is kidney and liver, is necessary for pre-clinical safety assessment. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of the intermediate frequency (150 kHz) and low intensity (18 Vpp) static electric fields in kidney tissue of rats induced by DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz [α] anthracene). This study was carried out in breast tumor models using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats induced with 7,12-Dimethylbenz [α] anthracene (DMBA) by 20 mg/kg body weight of dose ten times over five weeks. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups, namely: Non-induction Non-therapy (NINT), Non-Induction Therapy (NIT), Induction Non-Therapy (INT), and Induction Therapy (IT) groups. Static electric field therapy is carried out for 10 hours (resting 2 hours after 5 hours exposure) per day using the Electro-Capacitive Cancer Therapy (ECCT) individual enclosure for 21 days. The blood samples were collected before and after therapy for AST, ALT, and Creatinine measurement. The samples of liver and kidney were processed using Paraffin Method and Hematoxylin-Eosin Staining for histopathological observation. The histopathological score was determined using the ordinal method and post-examination masking. This study reveals that the 150 kHz and 18 Vpp static electric field therapy doesn’t significantly induce histopathological injuries on the liver and the kidney. Furthermore, it also does not have a negative impact on the creatinine, AST, and ALT levels of blood plasma.</p> Luthfi Nurhidayat Ibnu Fajar Afif Yati Helmi Hana Prinanda M. Irfan Dalila Afina Ahmad G. Fadlurrahman Nyoman Yudi Antara Firman Alamsyah Warsito P. Taruno Rarastoeti Pratiwi Copyright (c) 2022 Luthfi Nurhidayat, Ibnu Fajar, Afif Yati, Helmi Hana Prinanda, M. Irfan, Dalila Afina, Ahmad G. Fadlurrahman, Nyoman Yudi Antara, Firman Alamsyah, Warsito P. Taruno, Rarastoeti Pratiwi 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 703 713 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2725 Assessment of Coliform, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci in Raw and Treated Water in Negeri Sembilan, and Factors Associated with the Decontamination Procedure <p>World Health Organization estimated that half of the world’s population will encounter water-stressed living areas by the year 2025 due to climate change, population growth, and urbanization which already pose challenges for water supply systems. In Malaysia, water operators for each state are responsible to treat water and supplying it all over the state. This study focused on Negeri Sembilan state which has 21 water treatment plants that are responsible for supplying treated water to consumers. The objectives of this study were to assess microbial contaminants in raw and treated water using a rapid detection method (IDEXX Colilert method for coliform and <em>E. coli</em> detection, and IDEXX Enterolert-DW for enterococci detection in drinking water) and to quantify the number of microorganism with most probable number (MPN) method. A total of 96 samples were collected from both raw (n=17) and treated water (n=79) in Negeri Sembilan. Results have shown that the raw water sample in Seremban recorded the highest number of coliform (7258.8 MPN/100 ml), <em>E. coli</em> (5198.7 MPN/100 ml), and enterococci (997.5 MPN/100 ml). For treated water, all samples were recorded at &lt;1 MPN/100 ml. This showed that the decontamination procedure especially chlorination done by the water treatment plant did reduce the number of microbes in drinking water. Further analysis showed that the level of ammonia did not influence the number of microorganisms. However, the presence of chlorine did reduce the number of microbes, whereas and high level of turbidity showed a high number of microbes. In conclusion, despite the high number of microbes in raw water samples, treatment using chlorine (0.2mg/L to 5.0mg/L) was effective in reducing their numbers (&lt;1 MPN/100 ml) to provide clean water to the consumers.</p> Norfadzilah Azmee Noor Azira Abdul Mutalib Copyright (c) 2022 Norfadzilah Azmee, Noor Azira Abdul Mutalib 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 714 725 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2755 Marine Water Pollution Index in Intensive Shrimp Cultivation System in Jembrana <p>Intensive shrimp cultivation with a high level of shrimp biomass and feeding will also result in high waste disposal. This condition can cause pollution in the surrounding waters and reduce the quality of the environment, which will threaten the sustainability of the environment and the sustainability of shrimp cultivation on the shrimp farm. The problem is the pollution load of shrimp farm wastes in the intensive cultivation system and the pollution status of coastal waters. This study aims to analyse the pollution load of shrimp farm wastes and the pollution status of coastal waters. This research was carried out in the coastal area of Jembrana District for four months, from March to June 2022. It was conducted by collecting data directly in the field. Samples were taken by purposive sampling method, namely at the inlet and outlet of the reservoir, the outlet of the shrimp farm, the outlet of the WWTP, coastal waters and marine waters. The pollution load level of shrimp farm waste at each station refers to the Minister of Environment Decree No. 54 of 2004, and the marine water pollution index refers to the Minister of Environment Decree No. 115 of 2003. The pollution load of shrimp farm waste based on the parameter concentration value has passed the thresholds for the quality standards of source water and maintenance water, which are: 1). Free ammonia (NH3-N) at ST 1, ST 2, ST 3, and ST 4; 2). Nitrate (NO3-N) at ST 1, ST 2, ST 3, and ST 4. A load of waste generated from shrimp rearing farms was free ammonia at 3.3 tons/ha/year and nitrate at 555.96 kg/ha/year. In contrast, the pollution load of waste discharged into coastal waters from shrimp farm wastewater treatment plants was free ammonia at 2.06 tons/ha/year and nitrate at 475.96 kg/ha/year. The pollution index of coastal waters in the shrimp farm cultivation area in Jembrana District was classified as moderately polluted with a Pij of 7.67 and heavily polluted (Pij = 11.09) according to 80 days of observation and 110 days of shrimp rearing. Meanwhile, in marine waters, the level of pollution was in the moderate category during the 80-day and 110-day observation periods. Maintaining the preservation of the marine environment requires an analysis of the capacity of the organic waste of shrimp farms on the carrying capacity of the aquatic environment. Therefore, it can be used as a reference in formulating policies for the development of Vannamei shrimp cultivation areas in Jembrana District, Jembrana Regency.</p> I Ketut Sumantra Made Gede Soken I Wayan Gde Wiryawan I Made Wahyu Wijaya Copyright (c) 2022 I Ketut Sumantra, Made Gede Soken, I Wayan Gde Wiryawan, I Made Wahyu Wijaya 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 18 6 726 736 10.11113/mjfas.v18n6.2767