Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences <p><strong>Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS)</strong><br />Indexed by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a></strong>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>SCImago Journal Rank</strong></a>, <strong><a href=";hide_exact_match_fl=true&amp;utm_source=mjl&amp;utm_medium=share-by-link&amp;utm_campaign=search-results-share-this-journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a></strong>, and <strong><a href=";hl=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></strong></p> <p>Journal abbreviation: <strong>Mal. J. Fund. Appl. Sci.</strong> <br /><strong>ISSN: 2289-5981. e-ISSN: 2289-599X.</strong></p> <p>Editor-in-Chief: <strong><a href="">Hadi Nur</a></strong></p> <p>The Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS) (formerly known as Journal of Fundamental Sciences (2005-2011), ISSN: 1823-626X) is a refereed research journal managed by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (ISI-SIR)</a>, UTM. The aims and scope of the journal encompass research articles, original research reports, reviews, short communications, and scientific commentaries from fundamental principles to practical applications in the broad field of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at <a href="">Online Submissions</a>. For acceptance in MJFAS, a manuscript must be the right fit with <a href="">the journal's focus and scope</a>.</p> Penerbit UTM Press en-US Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 2289-5981 A Review on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) for Electrochemical Sensor Development <p>Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) technology has been studied extensively for multiple applications including analyte detection and chemical separation in the field of medical, pharmaceutical, food safety, and environment. Electrochemical sensors were benefitted from MIPs technology due to their chemical and physical robustness, high sensitivity, selectivity and stability, simple fabrication process, and low-cost of production. The incorporation of MIPs has allowed the development of sensors without biological elements. However, the optimization of the imprinted products requires optimal synergistic effect of multiple factors including materials selection and synthesis techniques. This optimization will form specific recognition cavities for template molecules in the polymeric matrix. This manuscript presents a summary of various MIPs synthesis techniques and performance analysis based on recent studies. The challenges faced in MIPs technology were also discussed to help future researchers in improving technology and boosting commercialization potential against the conventional electrochemical sensor.</p> Anis Suzziani Rosslan Muhammad Faiz Md Shakhih Farah Nabila Mustafa Amirrudin Asnida Abdul Wahab Faizuan Abdullah Muhammad Hanif Ramlee Copyright (c) 2022 Anis Suzziani Rosslan, Muhammad Faiz Md Shakhih, Farah Nabila Mustafa Amirrudin, Asnida Abdul Wahab, Faizuan Abdullah, Muhammad Hanif Ramlee 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 283 294 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2252 Mechanical Behaviour of Cancellous bone: Compression and Three-Point Bending Test <p>The mechanical properties of cancellous bone are fundamental in providing structural support and flexibility during physical activities. Characterization of cancellous bone properties and its mechanical behaviour were found crucial as information of the elastic and failure properties of the tissue may potentially be used to study the effects of drug treatments, aging and disease at the tissue level. This study aims to present the difference of mechanical properties of cancellous bone between compressive and three-point bending loads. Cancellous bone specimens from the femoral and tibial condyles of bovines were mechanically tested using three-point bending test and compression test and correlated with morphological parameters such as bone volume fraction and porosity. From the results, significant difference of mechanical properties was found between cancellous bone specimens tested with compressive and three-point bending load. From compressive load, the maximum stress reached 4.2 MPa, whereas in three-point bending, maximum flexural stress reached 17.0 MPa. Cancellous bone strength was found to be much higher when tested with three-point bending load, although correlations with morphological parameters such as bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and porosity were found lower compared to that in compressive load. In conclusion, there are no correlation between compression and three-point bending with morphology indices (BV/TV and porosity).</p> Farah Amira Mohd Ghazali Ardiyansyah Syahrom Copyright (c) 2022 Farah Amira Mohd Ghazali, Ardiyansyah Syahrom 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 295 303 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2274 The Feasibility of Using Human Primary Chondrocytes Derived from Osteoarthritic Patients Overexpressed with SOX9 Seeded on PLGA-Fibrin Hybrid Scaffolds for Cartilage Engineering This study aimed to find an optimal formulation to form 3D hyaline-like cartilage substitutes using the tissue engineering triads. The primary cells taken from osteoarthritic patients were overexpressed with transcriptional factor SRY (Sex Determining Region Y)-Box 9 (SOX9) using Lipofectamine 2000™ through a non-viral transfection method. The transfected and non-transfected cells were seeded on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based scaffolds with and without fibrin. The arrangement resulted in four experimental groups. The 3D ‘cells-scaffolds’ tissue constructs were cultured for three weeks and implanted ectopically in nude mice for four weeks. The evaluations include macroscopic and microscopic study, gene expression analyses, and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) assay, focusing on the cartilage properties. A biomechanical evaluation was performed only on post-implanted constructs. All in vitro, two- and four-week post-implanted constructs exhibited firm and smooth hyaline-like cartilage appearance. In vitro constructs showed sparse cells distribution with minimal cartilaginous tissue formation. However, a high density, lacunae-encapsulated chondrocytes embedded within the basophilic ground substances was observed in all post-implanted constructs. It is supported by positive-brownish precipitation immunolocalisation against collagen type II. Besides, molecular analysis showed that COL2A1 and other cartilaginous markers were also expressed. Increased sGAG content and compressive strain could be observed in vitro and in vivo. Although quantitatively, no significant statistical differences were found between the four groups, the qualitative results indicated that SOX9-overexpressed cells, PLGA, and fibrin combination guides hyaline-like cartilage formation better than other groups. Hence, the combination may be studied in a big animal model to develop its potential for future clinical application. Norhamiza Mohamad Sukri Munirah Sha'ban Muhammad Aa’zamuddin Ahmad Radzi Rozlin Abdul Rahman Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly Copyright (c) 2022 Norhamiza Mohamad Sukri, Norhamiza Mohamad Sukri, Munirah Sha'ban, Muhammad Aa’zamuddin Ahmad Radzi, Muhammad Aa’zamuddin Ahmad Radzi, Rozlin Abdul Rahman, Rozlin Abdul Rahman, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz Zulkifly 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 304 322 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2344 Constrained for G1 Cubic Trigonometric Spline Curve Interpolation <p>This paper presented the G1 cubic trigonometric spline function with three shape parameters that generate a constrained curve that interpolates 2D data. The purpose of this research is to ensure the generated curve passes through all data point yet satisfied the three cases of line constraints given. The three cases are: the data must lie above line Li the data must lie below line Li and lastly, the data must lie between two lines Li,1 and Li,2. A simpler theorem is implemented involving the roles of shape parameters. Two of the shape parameters are set free, while another parameter is fixed to fulfil all the three cases stated. The results show that a smooth curve of the G1 cubic trigonometric spline function can be produced within the constrained line by using the theorem developed while the hereditary shape of the data is preserved. Numerical examples are illustrated and discussed.</p> Nur Azliana Azlin Munir Normi Abdul Hadi Mohd Agos Salim Nasir Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Azliana Azlin Munir, Normi Abdul Hadi, Mohd Agos Salim Nasir 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 323 331 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2353 An Optimal Control of SIRS Model with Limited Medical Resources and Reinfection Problems <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>COVID-19 is a global public health problem that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). It is also extremely contagious with rapidly increasing death rates. In this paper, we propose an optimal control model with SIRS (Susceptible–Infected–Recovered- Susceptible) kinetics to examine the effects of several intervention measures (e.g., vaccination and treatment) under the limited medical resources scenarios. This model is also employed to investigate the possibility of reinfection because of the fading of immunity problem. As a case study, the modeling framework is parametrised using COVID-19 daily confirmed and recovered cases in Malaysia. The parameters have been approximated by relying on the model's best fit to actual data published by the Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH). Our numerical simulation results show that the inclusion of optimal control components with vaccination and treatment strategies would dramatically reduce the number of active cases even in the presence of reinfection forces. Regardless of the relative weightage (or costs) of vaccination and treatment, as well as the possibility of reinfection, it is critical to plan effective COVID-19 control measures by vaccinating as many people as possible (and as early as possible). Overall, these insights help explore the importance of intervention measures and the allocation of medical resources to control the severity of this pandemic.</p> </div> </div> </div> Amer M. Salman Mohd Hafiz Mohd Noor Atinah Ahmed Kamarul Imaran Musa Issam Ahmed Zuhur Alqahtani Copyright (c) 2022 Amer M. Salman, Mohd Hafiz Mohd, Noor Atinah Ahmed, Kamarul Imaran Musa, Issam Ahmed, Zuhur Alqahtani 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 332 342 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2390 Modeling of Traffic Flow on Roundabouts <p>The aim of this research is to create the modeling of roundabouts. First of all, the three-arm roundabout is created for validation with the existing model. Then, the model is expanded to the four-arm roundabout. In the development of a modern intelligent transportation system, the effectiveness of dealing with the non-linear, time-varying and congested traffic flow is imperative in achieving traffic control and accuracy. In this paper, the roundabout is modelled as a circuit of 2×2 junction comprising a main lane and a secondary lane. The rotation of the roundabout is in the clockwise direction, as in the case of Malaysia. In mathematical modelling, the traffic flow is created, based on one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws which are represented by non-linear partial differential equations where the unknown variable is a conserved quantity. As a scheme used in the computation and analysis, the Godunov method computes the fluxes at the interfaces of each cell in order to advance the solution of a Riemann Problem. In addition, the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL) condition is proposed and used to ensure the stability and accuracy of the numerical algorithm where the time step is not a constant. The optimization on the roundabout for Total Travel Time and Total Waiting Time with several parameters is applied to generate numerous results which will assist in assessing the reasonableness of the roundabout. The comparison data of the three-arm roundabout with our model and the existing model are discussed. In comparison, our results show similar properties with higher readings than in other published papers because our calculations involved all arms and roads. In addition, the comparison data between three-arm and four-arm roundabouts are reasonable and logical. Lastly, our model is more flexible and realistic, as compared to the existing model.</p> Yuat Hoong Cheah Su Hoe Yeak Copyright (c) 2022 Yuat Hoong Cheah, Su Hoe Yeak 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 343 366 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2422 Electrodeposition Technique to Fabrication CIGS using Pure Selenium and SeO2 as Selenium Source Energy demands are increasing day by day because almost all equipment that supports human activities uses electrical energy. CIGS solar cells are an energy source that is environmentally friendly, renewable, and has high efficiency. Selenium is one of the materials used in making solar cell CIGS. However, researchers often find the problems of this material hard to dissolve compared to other materials (copper, indium, and gallium). Therefore, in this study, pure selenium will be synthesized to produce selenium dioxide (SeO<sub>2</sub>) as a material for making solar cell CIGS with electrodeposition. The XRF showed the resulting selenium dioxide of 99.077%, SEM-EDX showed At% selenium from SeO<sub>2</sub> greater than pure selenium, XRD showed CIGS orientation on (211) and (105). Hilda Rahmawati M. Tommy Hasan Abadi Siti Zulaikah Nandang Mufti Copyright (c) 2022 Hilda Rahmawati, M. Tommy Hasan Abadi, Siti Zulaikah, Nandang Mufti 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 367 373 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2489 Non-Trivial Subring Perfect Codes in Unit Graph of Boolean Rings <p>The aim of this paper is to investigate the non-trivial subring perfect codes in a unit graph associated with the Boolean rings. We prove a subring perfect code of size , where , in the unit graphs associated with the finite Boolean rings . Moreover, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a subring of an infinite Boolean ring to be a perfect code of size infinity in the unit graph.</p> Mohammad Hassan Mudaber Nor Haniza Sarmin Ibrahim Gambo Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammad Hassan Mudaber, Nor Haniza Sarmin, Ibrahim Gambo 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 374 382 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2503 Structural, Morphological and Optical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanorods prepared by ZnO seed layer Annealed at Different Oxidation Temperature <p>In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods structure in the form of thin film have been grown on soda-lime glass (SLG) substrate incorporating two simple steps. Firstly, ZnO seed layer was pre-deposited onto the SLG substrate by the thermal evaporation method. During this process, the oxidation temperatures were varied in the range of 450 <sup>o</sup>C to 650 <sup>o</sup>C annealed for 3 hours. Then, the nanorods structure were grown on the surface of the seed layer by sol-gel immersion method with the use of zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>·6H<sub>2</sub>O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) in deionized (DI) water. The optical, structural and morphological properties at different oxidation temperatures were studied using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field-enhanced Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM). The surface morphology results revealed the formation of hexagonal shaped ZnO on top of the seed layer as a result of heterogeneous nucleation. X-ray diffraction results show that the c-axis orientation became more prominent while the optical band gap of ZnO thin films decreases from 3.31 eV to 3.14 eV as the annealing temperature increased respectively. It is shown that the size and alignment of ZnO NRs are greatly affected by the pre-deposition annealed temperature of the ZnO seed layer on the surface of SLG substrate.</p> Muhammad Safwan Abd Aziz Mohd Shahril Salleh Ganesan Krishnan Nandang Mufti M. F. Omar S. W. Harun Copyright (c) 2022 MUHAMMAD SAFWAN ABD AZIZ 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 383 392 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2538 Optimal Repair Rate for a Repairable Machine with Nonlinear State Equation <p class="JESTECAbstract"><span style="color: black;">This work deals with two models of a single machine subject to breakdowns. The first model is a binary-state model while the second one is a multi-state model. Breakdowns are followed by repairs. The systems under study are of the tracking type. We use nonlinear model predictive control to determine the optimal repair rates that keep the variables as close as possible to their target. Numerical illustrations with sensitivity analysis are used to assess the effect of the system parameters on the optimal solution.</span></p> Najeeb Al-Matar Lotfi Tadj Copyright (c) 2022 Najeeb Al-Matar, Lotfi Tadj 2022-08-04 2022-08-04 18 3 393 401 10.11113/mjfas.v18n3.2571