Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences <p><strong>Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS)</strong><br />Indexed by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a></strong>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>SCImago Journal Rank</strong></a>, <strong><a href=";hide_exact_match_fl=true&amp;utm_source=mjl&amp;utm_medium=share-by-link&amp;utm_campaign=search-results-share-this-journal" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a></strong>, and <strong><a href=";hl=en" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a></strong></p> <p>Journal abbreviation: <strong>Mal. J. Fund. Appl. Sci.</strong> <br /><strong>ISSN: 2289-5981. e-ISSN: 2289-599X.</strong></p> <p>Editor-in-Chief: <strong><a href="">Hadi Nur</a></strong></p> <p>The Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences (MJFAS) (formerly known as Journal of Fundamental Sciences (2005-2011), ISSN: 1823-626X) is a refereed research journal. The aims and scope of the journal encompass research articles, original research reports, reviews, short communications, and scientific commentaries from fundamental principles to practical applications in the broad field of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. All manuscript submissions must be made through the journal's online manuscript system at <a href="">Online Submissions</a>. For acceptance in MJFAS, a manuscript must be the right fit with <a href="">the journal's focus and scope</a>.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Hadi Nur) (Assistant Editor) Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:49:33 +0000 OJS 60 Mathematical Models of the Generation of Radiation-induced DNA Double-strand Breaks and Misrepair Cells by Direct and Indirect Action <p>Free radical carries an unpaired electron in the outer shell which is very reactive and becomes toxic to DNA. The direct action hits cell directly, while indirect action is the interaction between ionizing radiation and water molecule which later produces free radical. Hydrated electron (e), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen radical (OH), ionized water, hydroperoxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide are examples of free radical products. Among of these three free radicals, DNA damage dominantly caused by hydroxyl radical (OH) because it is found to be highly reactive compared to others. This paper aimed to develop a model by using structured population dynamics approach to study the effects of ionizing radiation by direct and indirect actions. The effects of ionizing radiation are mathematically described in a model using Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The simulation results are fitted to the Linear Quadratic (LQ) formulation to give the ratio for alpha/beta . Next, the parameter estimation of the model is carried out using experimental data of human colon carcinoma cell by the aid of the MATLAB programming. The estimated parameter values can explain the biological meaning, which can support the result of the experimental design. The result showed that the sum-squared error (SSE) between simulation data and experimental data obtained is 0.0019 which indicates an excellent t to the experimental data. Thus, the model developed is in line with the experimental result. The model is able to explain the dynamics process of the direct and indirect effect of ionizing radiation on the cell population.</p> Hamizah Rashid, Fuaada Mohd Siam, Normah Maan, Wan Nordiana W. Abd Rahman, Mohamad Hanis Nasir Copyright (c) 2022 Hamizah Rashid Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Published Literatures on Persistent Homology using Social Network Analysis <p>In several fields, topology is well adapted for analyzing big data and much more potent than conventional data analysis methods. Persistent Homology is an algebraic method used in topological data analysis for measuring shapes and functions. This paper aimed to analyze literature on Persistent Homology. From its inception (2004) to 6th November 2020, we comprehensively searched the Scopus science database. This paper records the document and source types, year of publication, languages of documents, subject areas, author’s keywords, country/region, authors, institutions, and citations, utilizing standard bibliometric indicators. The VOSviewer applications were used for analysis through various network forms. Two network measurements were considered to analyze the network model, which are degree centrality and betweenness centrality. Additional analysis was undertaken using Persistent Homology itself to comprehend the co-authorship network better. The study found that the number of Persistent Homology research has risen dramatically since 2014. Globally, scholars in the area mainly come from the United States. Regarding the number of citations, with an average of 51.2 citations each year, the paper by Zomorodian and Carlsson (2005) appears as the most cited article. Much of the study on Persistent Homology was in the fields of computer science and mathematics. The most used keywords were “topological features” and “data handling”, which reflect the significant study fields covered in Persistent Homology. Overall, the increasing number of Persistent Homology publications reflects a growing knowledge of its meaning and unique demands.</p> Muhamad Luqman Sapini, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Fatimah Abdul Razak, Mohd Almie Alias, Norliza Muhamad Yusof Copyright (c) 2022 Muhamad Luqman Sapini, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md Noorani, Fatimah Abdul Razak, Fatimah Abdul Razak, Mohd Almie Alias, Mohd Almie Alias, Norliza Muhamad Yusof, Norliza Muhamad Yusof Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Unsteady Solute Dispersion in a Blood Flow of Herschel-Bulkley through a Catheterized Stenosed Artery <p>Blockage of blood flow due to cholesterol deposits at the arterial wall, known as stenosis, can lead to conditions such as heart attack and stroke. Treatment such as balloon angioplasty involves the catheterization of an artery where a stented catheter is inflated at the stenosis site to open the narrowed artery. The catheterization of the stenosed artery affects the surrounding blood flow and dispersion process. The present study analyses the effect of catheter radius and stenosis height on the blood velocity and solute dispersion behavior. Herschel-Bulkley fluid is used to model the problem with stenosis as the boundary condition. The momentum equation and Herschel-Bulkley constitutive equation are solved analytically into integral forms. Simpson’s 3/8 rule and Regula-Falsi method were used to evaluate the integral numerically to obtain the velocity. The velocity was utilized to solve the unsteady convective-diffusion equation using the generalized dispersion model (GDM) to obtain the dispersion function. This present research can potentially help the medical field and industry in determining the suitable catheter radius for patients, calculating drug dosage and improving stent catheter design. Results show that the velocity decreases as the catheter radius and stenosis height increase. A decrease in velocity simultaneously increases the solute dispersion function.</p> Intan Diyana Munir, Nurul Aini Jaafar, Sharidan Shafie Copyright (c) 2022 Intan Diyana Munir, Nurul Aini Jaafar, Sharidan Shafie Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Genetic Algorithm for Optimal Vendor Payment Schedule of Transportation Company <p>Nowadays, businesses in any sector are under pressure to do more with less. Company cannot afford to pay more and squander opportunities to free up their company’s cash, i.e. working capital. Good working capital gives greater availability to the cash trapped on your balance sheet which is beneficial to fund growth, reduce costs, enhance service levels and seize new investment opportunities. There are numerous ways to free up working capital, and one of the strategies is through account payable. Account payable are amounts due to vendor or supplier for goods or services received that have not yet been paid for. Thus, this paper focuses on the proper vendor payment schedule as one of the approaches to sustain the liquidity of business. Optimizing the vendor payment schedule could be observed through their Net Present Value (NPV). NPV is the difference between the present value of cash inflows and outflows. Therefore, our aim is to optimize the vendor payment schedule by maximizing their NPV. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is implemented in determining the optimal vendor payment schedule. Two GA parameters, which are generation number and population size, have been analyzed and optimized in order to meet the maximum NPV. The results show that the GA is efficient in maximizing the NPV of vendor payment schedule.</p> Farhana Johar, Ng Houy Fen, Syarifah Zyurina Nordin Copyright (c) 2022 Farhana Johar, Ng Houy Fen, Syarifah Zyurina Nordin Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Porous g-C₃N₄ and Its Application as Photocatalyst for Methylene Blue Degradation <p>Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>) is a photocatalyst possessing a unique layered structure, remarkable thermal and chemical stability, and tunable bandgap. However, the bulk g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> has limited active sites and fast electron-holes recombination. In this work, we prepared porous g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> with an enhanced photoactivity toward methylene blue (MB) degradation. The porous g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> were prepared from melamine with addition of various amount of citric acid as a pore-forming agent (0.0 mmole, 0.1 mmole, 0.2 mmole, and 0.3 mmole; assigned as g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-0, g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-1, g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-2, and g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-3, respectively). The structural and morphologycal properties of the samples were analyzed using XRD, SEM, FTIR, and N<sub>2</sub> sorption. The optical property was analyzed using UV-vis diffuse reflectance and photoluminesence spectroscopy. While the electronic conductivity was analyzed using Mott-Schottky analysis and electron impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photocatalytic test revealed that g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-2 exhibited the highest MB degradation rate (<em>k</em>=0.0090 min<sup>-1</sup>), while the bulk g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-0 showed the lowest rate (<em>k</em>=0.0068 min<sup>-1</sup>). The g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-2 possesed relatively smaller crystallite size (~43.5 nm) and a larger surface area (13.975 m<sup>2</sup> g<sup>-1</sup>) compared to the bulk g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-0 (crystallite size: 46.9 nm; surface area: 9.163 m<sup>2</sup> g<sup>-1</sup>). The optical property and charge carrier transfer analysis also revealed that the g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>-2 possessed more efficient charge carrier transfer, which suppress the charge recombination. The combination between a larger surface area and more efficient charge carrier transfer contributes to the enhanced photocatalytic activity of porous g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> toward MB degradation.</p> Grace Yuhaneka, Ade Irma Rozafia, Wahyu Prasetyo Utomo, Ani Iryani, Djoko Hartanto Copyright (c) 2022 Grace Yuhaneka, Ade Irma Rozafia, Wahyu Prasetyo Utomo, Ani Iryani, Djoko Hartanto Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Morphological and Anatomical Studies on Glycosmis perakensis V.Naray (Rutaceae) <p>There are a number of underexplored plant species from the family of Rutaceae despite their economic importance, including <em>Glycosmis perakensis </em>V.Naray. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to enhance its taxonomic characterization and identification of this plant species by examining the morphology and anatomy of selected parts. The histological procedure for <em>G. perakensis</em> stems and leaves were optimized by increasing the incubation time for the fixation, clearing, and infiltration steps of the standard paraffin embedding method. Different types of stains were also used to identify and differentiate the plant tissues. The anatomy of plant parts such as stem, leaf, and petiole were studied using light microscopy. Pellucid dots and stomata exist on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. Statistical analysis on stomatal index and stomatal density showed a significant difference between abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Histological analyses showed the presence of sclerenchyma, collenchyma, and parenchyma cells, vascular bundle, prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, and secretory cavities in the plant leaf and stem transverse sections. This is the first study reporting on the histological morphology of stem, petiole, and leaf of <em>G. perakensis. </em>The findings of this study will be a valuable tool for the identification of this plant.</p> Previnaa Sundrarajoo, Sugumaran Manickam, Nur Fatihah Mohd Yusoff, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed Alitheen, Parameswari Namasivayam Copyright (c) 2022 Previnaa Sundrarajoo, Sugumaran Manickam, Nur Fatihah Mohd Yusoff, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed Alitheen, Parameswari Namasivayam Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Effectiveness of Chitosan Solution on Streptococcus Mutans <p>Dental caries is a localized destruction on teeth by organic acid produced by carbohydrate fermentation of cariogenic bacteria. Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium, a facultative anaerobe species often found in human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to dental caries. Chitosan is the collective name of a group of partially or fully deacetylated chitin. Because of its unique biological properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity, a lot of applications have been found for chitosan, on its own or combined with other polymers. Chitosan has a wide spectrum of activity and high killing rate against Gram positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while having low toxicity against mammal cell. In this research a Kirby-Bauer test is done on Streptococcus mutans using 1%, 1.5%, and 2% chitosan solution as treatment group and aquades as control group. Average of each group is calculated and significancy is determined using statistical calculation. The resulting data is analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Post-hoc Tukey HSD and is shown there to be a significant difference between each treatment groups. The biggest zone of inhibition is seen on the 2% chitosan solution group. 2% chitosan solution has higher antibacterial effectiveness on Streptococcus mutans than 1% and 1.5% chitosan solution.</p> Dian Agustin Wahjuningrum, Setyabudi Setyabudi, Daniel Hadinata, Ilona Talitha Amalia, Rizki Annisa Ro’ifa, Devi Eka Juniarti Copyright (c) 2022 Dian Agustin Wahjuningrum, Setyabudi Setyabudi, Daniel Hadinata, Ilona Talitha Amalia, Rizki Annisa Ro’ifa, Devi Eka Juniarti Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Solutions to the Diophantine Equation x²+16⋅7ᵇ=y²ʳ <p>We present a method of determining integral solutions to the equation <em>x^2 + 16.7^b = y^2r</em>, where <em>x,y,b,r \in Z^+</em>. We observe that the results can be classified into several categories. Under each category, a general formula is obtained by using the method of geometric progression. We then provide the bound for the number of non-negative integral solutions associated with each <em>b</em>. Lastly, the general formula for each of the categories is obtained and presented to determine respective values of <em>x</em> and <em>y^r</em>. We also highlight two special cases where different formulae are needed to represent their integral solutions.</p> Kai Siong Yow, Siti Hasana Sapar, Cheng Yaw Low Copyright (c) 2022 Kai Siong Yow, Siti Hasana Sapar, Cheng Yaw Low Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Water Footprint of Rice Production in Malaysia: A Review of Evapotranspiration and Factors of Climate Change for Rice and Food Security in Malaysia <p>Rice is a special crop that requires a thin layer of water to produce, and is produced differently from other crops. The rice sectors in Malaysia continue to be developed in a proactive and progressive manner. Due to its growth process, rice has a different water footprint (WF) compared to other crops. This study improved the calculation of the blue and green WF of rice production and examined the variations of these footprints under the primary granary area of Malaysia. The effects of climate change will, however, make it more difficult to achieve food security and increase rice yields in the future. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss climate change impacts on rice production and food security in Malaysia. Many countries worldwide are becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters due to climate change. Many climate models predict a decline in agricultural productivity due to excessive heat in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Southeast Asia. Malaysia is no exception. Therefore, the present study examined the impact of climate change on rice yields in Muda Granary, Malaysia. Utilizing literature reviews, we assessed the value of evapotranspiration (ET) in order to calculate the green WF for the area. Climate variables (such as ET), yield, and variance of impact during the main season and off-season were the primary objectives of the study. Precipitation did not show a statistically significant difference between the main and off-seasons from 2011-2015. During the main crop season, the maximum ET was negatively associated with yield, but the minimum ET showed a positive association. In the off-season, green WF levels were higher than those in the main season. These findings indicate that climate change poses a serious threat to rice production, which will in turn affect food security as they are highly interconnected. Thus, it is high time for Malaysia to revamp its paddy and rice intervention strategies by giving due attention to enhancing the adaptive capacity of rice farmers to cope with climate change.</p> Nurfarhain Mohamed Rusli, Zainura Zainon Noor, Shazwin Mat Taib, Noor Salehan Mohammad Sabli Copyright (c) 2022 Nurfarhain Mohamed Rusli, Zainura Zainon Noor, Shazwin Mat Taib, Noor Salehan Mohammad Sabli Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Basin of Attraction for an Attractor in a Discrete Prey-Predator Sea Turtle-Human Interaction Model using Stability Index Approach <p>Drastic declines of the number of sea turtles have become a global issue since decades ago. This is due to overexploitation through human activities in various ways, such as poaching and trapping in the fishing nets, consuming their eggs and meat, other than being threatened by pollution, habitat destruction and many more. Therefore, it is our interest to investigate this issue through mathematical modelling. For that purpose, a discrete model of interaction between sea turtles and humans is proposed in this paper. The objective of this paper is to determine sustainability of sea turtle population in the future. In order to achieve this, an approach called the stability index, has been implemented on the basin of attraction of an attractor in the model proposed for different values of consumption rate The results show that the stability indices vary from down to positive values as increases. Biologically, index means that the sea turtles will survive, while positive index means that riddled basin has occurred in which it is predicted that the sea turtles might extinct or not depending on the initial population existing in a habitat. Moreover, the time series have also been plotted for different values of The patterns show that for a low the sea turtles will survive in the next 10 years while when is high, the sea turtle will extinct in less than two years. Thus, the results of this model could significantly be used to urge humans to stop exploiting these unique creatures and start appreciating their existence in the ecosystem.</p> Mohd Tirmizi Mohd Lutfi, Ummu Atiqah Mohd Roslan, Fatemeh Helen Ghane, Ahmad Fadillah Embong Copyright (c) 2022 Mohd Tirmizi Mohd Lutfi, Ummu Atiqah Mohd Roslan, Fatemeh Helen Ghane, Ahmad Fadillah Embong Thu, 06 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000