Assessment of fatty acid composition and response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Pouteria campechiana pulp


  • Nur Haziqah Che Marzuki Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’zim Malaysia
  • Mariani Abdul Hamid Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia
  • Roswanira Abdul Wahab Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’zim Malaysia



Pouteria campechiana, fatty acid composition, Response Surface Methodology, total phenolic content, ultrasound-assisted extraction


Pouteria campechiana (PC) pulp was analyzed for its fatty acid composition. Fourteen different kinds of fatty acids were found with the major fatty acids viz. palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1), myristic acid (C14:0) and linolenic acid (C18:2), making up approximately 73.8 % of the total fatty acid content (TPC). An ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of the polyphenolic bioactive components in PC pulp powder were statistically optimized using the Central Composite Design (CCD). Factors that gave maximized TPC in the crude extract of PC pulp powder were assessed for factors, ratio of ethanol:water, extraction temperature and extraction time. The established optimum conditions of the CCD model with R2 = 0.8833 were within the studied range and agreed well with the predicted values. Under an optimized condition [30 min, 35 °C and ratio of ethanol:water, 60:40 (%, v/v)], the highest TPC was 1162.80 mg GAE/100 g in comparison to the predicted 1115.06 mg GAE/100 g. High Performance Liquid Chromatography confirmed that gallic acid and its derivatives were the major components, comprising a ⁓0.03 % (w/w) of the PC pulp crude extract. Pertinently, a high recovery value in the HPLC validation data (109.84 %, R2 = 0.9995) suggests the method was accurate.

Author Biographies

Nur Haziqah Che Marzuki, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’zim Malaysia

Postgraduate Student, Chemistry

Mariani Abdul Hamid, Institute of Bioproduct Development, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia

Senior Lecturer

Roswanira Abdul Wahab, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor Darul Ta’zim Malaysia

Chemistry Department and senior Lecturer


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