Water-soluble chitosan preparation from marine sources

Yatim Lailun Ni'mah, Harmami Harmami, Ita Ulfin, Suprapto Suprapto, Clarissa Welny Saleh

Abstract


Water-soluble chitosan (WSC) has been derived from different marine sources such as squid pen, shrimp, mussel, and crab shells. Chitosan was obtained by deacetylation of chitin. Degradation of chitosan by hydrogen peroxide would produce WSC. Demineralization process was optimized by varying incubation time and temperature to minimize the mineral content in chitin. WSC that obtained was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to calculate the deacetylation degree. Deacetylation degree of WSC was also studied by titrimetric method. The ash content of chitin from marine sources was measured to obtain the optimum demineralization incubation time. The optimum incubation time for demineralization process was 12 hours and stirred at 50 rpm. Recovery and deacetylation degree of WSC were found to be varied and depended on the source of WSC. Each sample of WSC from shrimp shell, mussel shell, squid pen and crab shell has the degree of deacetylation of 64.18%, 35.03%, 58.04% and 53.91% respectively. The presence of amine group was confirmed from FTIR spectra ofsynthesized WSC.

Keywords


Deacetylation, degradation, FTIR, water-soluble chitosan

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdou, E.S., Nagy, K.S.A., Elsabee, M.Z., 2008. Extraction and characterization of chitin and chitosan from local sources. Bioresour. Technol. 99, 1359–1367.

Abdulkarim, A., Isa, M.T., Abdulsalam, S., Muhammad, A.J., Ameh, A.O., 2013. Extraction and characterisation of chitin and chitosan from mussel shell. Civ. Envir. Res., 3(2), 108-114.

Alsabagh, A.M., Elsabee, M.Z., Moustafa, Y.M., Elfky, A., Morsi, R.E., 2014. Corrosion inhibition efficiency of some hydrophobically modified chitosan surfactants in relation to their surface active properties. Egypt. J. Pet. 23, 349–359.

Arbia, W., Arbia, L., Adour, L., Amrane, A., 2013. Chitin extraction from crustacean shells using biological methods - A review. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 51(1), 12-25.

Brugnerotto, J., Lizardi, J., Goycoolea, F.M., Arguelles-Monal, W., Desbrieres, J., Rinaudo, M., 2001. An infrared investigation in relation with chitin and chitosan characterization. Polymer 42, 3569–3580.

Chandumpai, A., Singhpibulporn, N., Faroongsarng, D., Sornprasit, P., 2004. Preparation and physico-chemical characterization of chitin and chitosan from the pens of the squid species, Loligo lessoniana and Loligo formosana. Carbohydr. Polym. 58, 467–474.

Cheng, S., Chen, S., Liu, T., Chang, X., Yin, Y., 2007. Carboxymenthylchitosan as an ecofriendly inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl. Mater. Lett. 61(14-15), 3276–3280.

Czechowska-Biskup, R., Jarosińska, D., Rokita, B., Ulański, P., Rosiak, J.M., 2012. Determination of degree of deacetylation of chitosan- Comparison of methods. Prog. Chem. Appl. Chitin and its... XVII, 5–20.

Dodane, V., Vilivalam, V.D., 1998. Pharmaceutical applications of chitosan. Pharm. Sci. Technol. Today 1, 246–253.

Du, Y., Zhao, Y., Dai, S., Yang, B., 2009. Preparation of water-soluble chitosan from shrimp shell and its antibacterial activity. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 10, 103–107.

FAO, 2009. Part 1: World review of fisheries and agriculture. The State of World Fisheries and Agriculture. 2010, 1-15.

Gámiz-González, M. A., Correia, D. M., Lanceros-Mendez, S., Sencadas, V.,Gómez Ribelles, J. L., Vidaurre, A., 2017. Kinetic study of thermal degradation of chitosan as a function of deacetylation degree. Carbohydr. Polym. 167, 52-58.

Gooday, G.W., Jeuniaux, C., Muzzarelli, R., 1986. Chitin in Nature and Technology, Boston MA, Springer, pp. 469-476.

Gortari, M.C., Hours, R.A., 2013. Biotechnological processes for chitin recovery out of crustacean waste: A mini-review. Electron. J. Biotechnol.16, 12-25.

Hajji, S., Younes, I., Ghorbel-Bellaaj, O., Hajji, R., Rinaudo, M., Nasri, M., Jellouli, K., 2014. Structural differences between chitin and chitosan extracted from three different marine sources. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 65, 298–306.

Horton, D., 2013. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry. Academic Press Imprint Elsevier Science & Technology Books., San Diego, USA, First edition, Vol. 70.

Jang, M.-K., Kong, B.-G., Jeong, Y.-I., Lee, C. H., Nah, J.-W., 2004.Physicochemical characterization of α-chitin, β-chitin, and γ-chitin separated from natural resources. J. Polym. Sci. Part Polym. Chem. 42, 3423–3432.

Kim, C. H., Choi, J. W., Chun, H. J., Choi, K. S., 1997. Synthesis of chitosan derivatives with quaternary ammonium salt and their antibacterial activity. Polym. Bull. 38, 387–393.

Kim, S. K., 2010. Chitin, chitosan, oligosaccharides and their derivatives, biological activities and applications, CRC Press, London, New York.

Kim, S.-K., Rajapakse, N., 2005. Enzymatic production and biological activities of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS): A review. Carbohydr. Polym. 62, 357–368.

Lang, G., and Clausen, T., 1989. The use of chitosan in cosmetics. In Chitinand chitosan: Sources chemistry, biochemistry, physical properties and applications, Skjak-Braek G., Anthonsen T., and S. P. (Eds.) (pp.139- 147). Elsevier Sciences Publishers, London, New York.

Ma, Z., Wang, W., Wu, Y., He, Y., Wu, T., 2014. Oxidative degradation of chitosan to the low molecular water-soluble chitosan over peroxotungstate as chemical scissors. PLoS ONE. 9, 1-7.

No, H. K., Hur, E. Y., 1998. Control of foam formation by antifoam during demineralization of crustacean shell in preparation of chitin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 3844–3846.

No, H. K., Young Park, N., Ho Lee, S., Meyers, S. P., 2002. Antibacterial activity of chitosans and chitosan oligomers with different molecular weights. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 74, 65–72.

Pepić, I., Hafner, A., Lovrić, J., Pirkić, B., Filipović-Grcić, J., 2010. A nonionic surfactant/chitosan micelle system in an innovative eye drop formulation. J. Pharm. Sci. 99, 4317–4325.

Percot, A., Viton, C., Domard, A., 2003. A characterization of shrimp shell deproteinization. Biomacromolecules. 4, 1380-1385.

Ramasamy, P., Subhapradha, N., Shanmugam, V., Shanmugam, A., 2014. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant property of chitosan from cuttlebone Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885). Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 64, 202–212.

Riszki, T. I., Harmami, H., 2015. Pengaruh suhu terhadap kualitas coating(pelapisan) stainless steel Tipe 304 dengan kitosan secara elektroforesis. Jurnal Sains dan Seni ITS 4, C17–C20.

Saleh, C.W., Harmami, H., Ulfin, I., 2017. Pengendalian korosi menggunakan inhibitor kitosan larut air untuk baja lunak dalam media HCl 1M. JurnalSains dan Seni ITS 6, 1–4.

Truong, T., Hausler, R., Monette, F., Niquette, P., 2007. Fishery industrial waste valorization for the transformation of chitosan by hydrothermo-chemical method. Rev. Sci. Eau. 20, 253-262.

Vachoud, L., Pochat-Bohatier, C., Chakrabandhu, Y., Bouyer, D., David, L., 2012. Preparation and characterization of chitin hydrogels by water vapor induced gelation route. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 51, 431–439.

Vargas, M., González-Martínez, C., 2010. Recent patents on food applications of chitosan. Recent Pat. Food Nutr. Agric. 2, 121–128.

Wasikiewicz, J.M., Yoshii, F., Nagasawa, N., Wach, R.A., Mitomo, H., 2005. Degradation of chitosan and sodium alginate by gamma radiation, sonochemical and ultraviolet methods. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 73, 287–295.

Younes, I., Rinaudo, M., 2015. Chitin and chitosan preparation from marine sources: Structure, properties and applications - Review. Mar. Drugs13, 1133-1174.

Zhao, X., Kong, A., Hou, Y., Shan, C., Ding, H., Shan, Y., 2009. An innovative method for oxidative degradation of chitosan with molecular oxygen catalyzed by metal phthalocyanine in neutral ionic liquid. Carbohydr. Res. 344, 2010–2013.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/mjfas.v15n2.971

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Yatim Lailun Ni'mah

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Copyright © 2005-2019 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Disclaimer: This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this website.