Biodecolourisation of Acid Red 27 Dye by Citrobacter freundii A1 and Enterococcus casseliflavus bacterial consortium


  • Muhamad Firdaus Sabaruddin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Muhamad Hanif Md Nor Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohamad Fahmi Muhamad Mubarak Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Noor Aini Abdul Rashid Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Giek Far Chan Temasek Polytechnic
  • Shimizu Youichi Kyushu Institute of Technology
  • Norahim Ibrahim Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



Bacteria consortia, Azo dye decolourisation, Cyclic voltammetry, Irreversible reaction, Catechol degradation


The feasibility of Citrobacter freundii A1 and Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 bacterial consortium under sequential facultative anaerobic-aerobic treatment for complete dye degradation using AR-27 dyes shows 98% decolourisation and 100% COD removal after 72 hours treatment. Moreover, the UV-Vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the azo linkage was cleaved after the decolourisation occurred. While, the cyclic voltammetry analysis also shows that the decolourisation of AR-27 by C. Freundii A1 and E. Casseliflavus C1 was an irreversible reaction and the detection of oxidation reaction under agitation proved the presences of AR-27 degradation process. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis has confirmed the AR-27 degradation through the decrease in catechol concentration.

Author Biographies

Muhamad Firdaus Sabaruddin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Muhamad Hanif Md Nor, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Mohamad Fahmi Muhamad Mubarak, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Noor Aini Abdul Rashid, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Giek Far Chan, Temasek Polytechnic

School of Applied Sciences

Shimizu Youichi, Kyushu Institute of Technology

Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering

Norahim Ibrahim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences


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