Development and performance of BAC-ZS bacterial consortium as biofilm onto macrocomposites for raw textile wastewater treatment


  • Mohd Fahmi Muhammad Mubarak Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Muhamad Hanif Md Nor Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Muhamad Firdaus Sabaruddin
  • Hui Han Bay Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Chi Kim Lim Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Zaharah Ibrahim Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



Azo dye, biofilm, macrocomposites, sequential batch reactor, textile wastewater


One of the most abundant dyes that are used extensively in the textile manufacturing are azo dyes, which may endanger water bodies since incomplete breakdown of dyes may cause mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds to persist. In this study, BAC-ZS, bacterial mixed culture consisting of three acclimatised decolourising bacteria were grown as biofilm onto macrocomposites. Different time duration between 3 to 14 days of biofilm development was studied to determine the density of biofilm attached onto macrocomposites. Sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were set up for raw textile wastewater treatment to investigate the effectiveness of the treatment with and without the presence of biofilm (control). The treatment was performed under facultative anaerobic-aerobic condition for 20 days continuously with 48-hour of hydraulic retention time (HRT) cycle (consisting both conditions). Colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were monitored throughout the treatment process. Results showed that the colour and COD removal by the developed biofilm were 78.6 ± 1.4% and 76.4 ± 1.12% from initial values of 1400 ADMI and 660 mg/L, respectively while only 47.9 ± 0.9% colour and 38.0 ± 1.5% COD removal for the control. In conclusion, the biofilm of BAC-ZS mixed culture coated onto macrocomposites showed potential applications in the treatment of raw textile wastewater.

Author Biographies

Mohd Fahmi Muhammad Mubarak, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Muhamad Hanif Md Nor, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Muhamad Firdaus Sabaruddin

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Hui Han Bay, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Chi Kim Lim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Professor at Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences

Zaharah Ibrahim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Professor at Department of Biosciences and Health Sciences


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