Optimization and effect of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction conditions on global oil yield and eugenol from piper betle leaves


  • Nur Husnina Arsad Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Azizi Che Yunus Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Zuhaili Idham Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, Piper betle Leaves, Piperaceae, Optimization, Eugenol


Todays, medicinal plants have been of great importance to the health of people and societies in Malaysia, and the entire world. Piper betle leaves, a member of family Piperaceae is an edible plant. The leaves of Piper betle have been traditionally utilized in India for inhibition of oral diseases. Scientific research shows that the leaves possess many biological activities with a good medicinal and commercial value. Nowadays, advance technologies have been used to develop high quality products. This study concentrates on supercritical fluid extraction technology which carbon dioxide, CO2 play as a solvent. The purpose of this study was to optimize and look into the effects of supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction process variables, namely pressure (10–30 MPa), temperature (40–80 °C) and CO2 flowrate (2-8 mL/min) on global oil yield and percentage of Eugenol in Piper betle Leaves. The result shows that as the pressure, temperature and flow rate of CO2 increased the oil yield of Piper betle leaves increased. However, further increased, resulting in decreasing the amount of global oil yield. Meanwhile, the percentage of Eugenol increased as the CO2 flow rate increased. However, as the pressure and temperature increased, the percentage of Eugenol decreased. Second order polynomial model was used to express the extracted oil and percentage of Eugenol with the both results was satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the global oil yields and percentage of Eugenol extracted were 19.0 MPa, 40.0 °C and 7.0 mL/min leading to 0.228g of oil and 8.21 % of Eugenol. The most dominant factor for both responses was CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 69.06% for global oil yield and 82.79% for amount of Eugenol.


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