A review on the geotechnical and engineering characteristics of marine clay and the modern methods of improvements

Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared, Aminaton Marto

Abstract


Marine clay is a soft soil that could be found widely at the coastal and offshore areas. This type of soil is usually associated with high settlement and instability, poor soil properties that are not suitable for engineering requirements and low unconfined compressive strength of less than 20 kPa. Considerable failure could occur even with light loads and it shows flat or featureless surface. This kind of soil is considered as problematic due to the existence of high moisture content and usually exists as slurry with noticeable percentage of expandable clay minerals. In this paper, the geotechnical, micro-structure and engineering properties of marine clay are thoroughly reviewed and discussed. The properties include moisture content, particle size distribution, specific gravity, Atterberg limits, mineral compositions and shear strength. Moreover, due to the increasing demand of construction at coastal and offshore areas involving the marine clay, many attempts have been made to stabilize this kind of soil in order to solve the geotechnical related problems. Some of the common stabilization methods used to improve the properties of marine clay such as cement grouting, chemical additives and some environmental friendly additives are discussed. In long term, marine clay treatment using cement was found to be the best method. In addition, this paper serves as a guideline for the design and construction of projects on marine soils.


Keywords


Marine clay, index properties, shear strength, soil stabilization

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad, N. R., Harahap, I. S. H. 2016. The compression behaviour of marine clays in Malaysia. Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. 1–6.

Ali, F., Al-samaraee, E. A. S. M. 2013. Field behavior and numerical simulation of coastal bund on soft marine clay loaded to failure. Electronic J. of Geotech. Eng. 18, 4027–4042.

Arulrajah, A., Bo, M. W. 2008. Characteristics of Singapore marine clay at Changi. Geotech. and Geol. Eng. 26, 431–441.

Azhar, A., Chan, C. M., AbdulKarim, A. T. 2014. Solidification potential of fine-grained dredged marine soils : water-binder ratio effects. J. of Civ. Eng. Res. 4(3A), 48–53.

Basack, S., Purkayastha, R. D. 2009. Engineering properties of marine clays from the eastern coast of India. J. of Eng. Tech. and Res.. 1(6), 109–114.

Bo, M. W., Arulrajah, A., Sukmak, P., Horpibulsuk, S. 2015. Mineralogy and geotechnical properties of Singapore marine clay at Changi. Soils and Found. 55(3), 600–613.

Bushra, I., Robinson, R. G. 2010. Strength behaviour of cement stabilised marine clay cured under stress. Proceeding of Indian Geotechnical Conference - 2010, GEOtrends. 4–7.

Bushra, I., Robinson, R. G. 2009. Consolidation behaviour of a cement stabilised marine soil. Proceedings of International Geotechnical Conference. 431–434.

Chan, C. 2014. Remoulded dredged marine clay : A study of time factor on strength recovery. in: math. and computers in sci. and ind.. 342–347.

Chong, S. Y., Kassim, K. A. 2015. Effect of lime on compaction, strength and consolidation characteristics of Pontian marine clay. Jurnal Teknologi. 72, 41–47.

Egashira, K., Ohtsubo, M. 1982. Smectite in marine quick-clays of Japan. Clays and Clay Miner. 30(4), 275–280.

Izabel, K. J., Sangeetha, S. 2014. Stabilization of marine clay using jerofix. Inter. J. of Sci. Eng. and Res. 4(3), 93–95.

Kang, G., Tsuchida, T., Athapaththu, A. M. R. G. 2016. Engineering behavior of cement-treated marine dredged clay during early and later stages of curing. Eng. Geol.. 209, 163–174.

Kasim, F., Marto, A., Rahman, N. A., Tan, C. S. 2015. Unconfined compressive strength and microstructure of clay soil stabilised with biomass silica. Jurnal Teknologi. 77(11), 9–15.

Kiran, B. M. N., Prasad, D. V. S. 2016. Stabilization of marine clay using ferric chloride and quarry dust. Inter. J. of Latest Trends, Eng. and Tech. 6(3), 609–615.

Lee, P. T., Tan, Y. C., Lim, B. L., Nazir, R. 2016. Some geotechnical properties of Tokai clay. Proceedings of the 19th Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference. 1–5.

Liu, S. Y., Shao, G. H., Du, Y. J., Cai, G. J. 2011. depositional and geotechnical properties of marine clays in Lianyungang, China. Eng. Geol. 121, 66–74.

Makusa, G. P. 2013. State of the art review: soil stabilization methods and materials. Luleå University of Technology.

Marto, A., Jahidin, M. R., Aziz, A. N. A., Kasim, F. K., Yunus, M. N. 2016. Stabilization of marine clay using biomass silica-rubber chips mixture. Inter. Eng. Res. and Innovation Symp. 160, 1–8.

Marto, A., Yunus, M. N., Pakir, F., Latifi, N., Mat, N. A., Tan, C. S. 2015. Stabilization of marine clay by biomass silica (non-traditional) stabilizers. Appl. Mechanics and Mater. 695, 93–97.

Moses, G. G., Rao, S. N., Rao, P. N. 2003. Undrained strength behaviour of a cemented marine clay under monotonic and cyclic loading. Ocean Eng. 30, 1765–189.

Oh, E. Y. N., and Chai, G. W. K. 2006. Characterization of marine clay for road embankment design in coastal area. Proceedings of the sixteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. 7–10.

Otoko, G. R., Simon, A. I. 2015. Stabilization of a deltaic marine clay (chikoko) with chloride compounds: y-values. International Research J. of Eng. and Tech. 2(3), 2092–2097.

Otoko, G. R., Blessing, O. C. 2014. Cement and lime stabilization of a Nigerian deltaic marine clay (chikoko). European Inter. J. of Sci. and Tech. 3(4), 53–60.

Pakir, F., Marto, A., Yunus, M. N., Latifi, N., Tan, C. S. 2014. Effect of sodium silicate as liquid based stabilizer on shear strength of marine clay. Jurnal Teknologi. 76(2), 45-50.

Prasad, D. S. V., Venkatteswarlu, H., Rao, N. J., Kumar, J. C. 2015. Strength behaviour of marine clay treated with rice husk ash. International Journal of Eng. Sci. Res. and Tech. 4(5), 561–567.

Rahman, Z. A., Yaacob, W. Z. W., Rahim, S. A., Lihan, T., Idris, W. M. R., Sani, W. N. F. 2013. Geotechnical characterisation of marine clay as potential liner material. Sains Malaysiana. 42(8), 1081–1089.

Rajasekaran, G. 2005. Sulphate attack and ettringite formation in the lime and cement stabilized marine clays. Ocean Eng. 32, 1133–1159.

Rajasekaran, G., Rao, S. N. 2004. Falling cone method to measure the strength of marine clays. Ocean Eng. 31, 1915–1927.

Rajasekaran, G., Rao, S. N. 2002. Compressibility behaviour of lime-treated marine clay. Ocean Eng. 29, 545–559.

Rajasekaran, G., Rao, S. N. 2002. Permeability characteristics of lime treated marine clay. Ocean Eng. 29, 113–127.

Rajasekaran, G., Murali, K., Srinivasaraghavan, R. 1999. Microfabric, chemical and mineralogical study of Indian marine clays. Ocean Eng. 26, 463–483.

Ramamoorthya, S. 2007. Correlation of engineering characteristics of marine clay from central west coast of Malaysia.

Rao, D. K. 2013. A laboratory investigation on the affect of vitrified polish waste for improving the properties of marine clay. Inter. J. of Eng. and Innovative Tech. 11(2), 37–41.

Rao, D. K., Anusha, M., Pranav, P. R. T., Venkatesh, G. A. 2012. Laboratory study on the stabilization of marine clay using saw dust and lime. Inter. J. of Eng. Sci. and Advanced Techn. 2(4), 851–62.

Rao, D. K., Raju, G. V. R. P., Babu, K. J. 2011. Field studies on the marine clay foundation soil beds treated with lime, gbfs and reinforcement technique. Inter. J. of Eng. Sci. and Tech. 3(4), 3105–3112.

Rao, D. K., Raju, G. V. R. P. 2011. Laboratory studies on the properties of stabilized marine clay from Kakinada Sea Coast, India. Inter. J. of Eng. Sci. and Tech. 3(1), 421–428.

Rao, S. N., and Mathew, P. K. 1996. Permeability studies in marine clays stabilized with lime column. Inter. J. of Offshore Polar Eng. 6(3),1-6.

Shahri, Z., Chan, C. 2015. On the characterization of dredged marine soils from Malaysian waters : physical properties. Environ. and Pollution. 4(3), 1–9.

Tanaka, H., Locat, J., Shibuya, S., Soon, T. T., Shiwakoti, D. R. 2001. Characterization of Singapore , Bangkok , and Ariake clays. Canadian Geotech. J. 38(2), 378–400.

Thomas, M., Petry, P. E., Asce, F., Little, D. N., Asce, F. 2002. Review of stabilization of clays and expansive soils in pavements and lightly loaded structures — history, practice, and future. J. of Mater. In Civ. Eng. 14(6), 447–460.

Tongwei, Z., Xibing, Y., Yongfeng, D., Dingwen, Z., Songyu, L. 2014. Mechanical behaviour and micro-structure of cement-stabilised marine clay with a metakaolin agent. Constr. and Build. Mater. 73, 51–57.

Xiao, H. W., Lee, F. H. 2016. Curing time effect on behavior of cement treated marine clay. World Academy of Sci., Eng. and Tech. 43, 71–78.

Yunus, M. N., Marto, A., Pakir, F., Kasran, K., Azri, M. A., Jusoh, S. N. 2015. Performance of lime-treated marine clay on strength and compressibility chracteristics. Inter. J. of Geomate. 8(2), 1232–1238.

Zhang, R. J., Santoso, A. M., Tan, T. S., Phoon, K. K., Asce, F. 2013. Strength of high water-content marine clay stabilized by low amount of cement. J. of Geotech. and Geoenviron. Eng. 139, 2170–2181.

Zillianstetra, V. 2009. Stress ­ strain behaviour of cement treated

marine clay. Geotechnical Testing Journal. 25(4), 1–9.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.11113/mjfas.v13n4.921

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Mohammed Ali Mohammed Al-Bared, Aminaton Marto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Copyright © 2005-2019 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Disclaimer: This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this website.