Determination of selected heavy metals in airborne particles in industrial area: A baseline study


  • Azman Azid Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Siti Noor Syuhada Muhammad Amin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Saiful Iskandar Khalit Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Salwani Ismail Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Mohd Saiful Samsudin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Ku Mohd Kalkausar Ku Yusof Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Mohammad Azizi Amran Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Kamaruzzaman Yunus Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Ahmad Shakir Mohd Saudi Institute of Medical Science and Technology



Airborne pollution, heavy metal pollution, industrial area, ICP-MS, industrial emission


This study focuses on airborne heavy metal pollution in the industrial area. Eight points from Paka and Gebeng Industrial Area respectively were selected for this study within two monsoon seasons. The samples were analysed for heavy metals (Cd, As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the mean concentration value of As, Pb and Cd for Paka were 5.0 ng/L ± 1.0, 107.0 ng/L ± 88.2, and 10.0 ng/L ± 7.5, respectively and Gebeng were 3.5 ng/L ± 1.5, 69.3 ng/L ± 59.3 and 5.1 ng/L ± 3.8, respectively in the southwest monsoon - much higher than the target value by European Commission in Directive 2004/107/EC and Directive 2008/50/EC. It could be concluded that the industrial and transportation emission were the major source of heavy metals in the atmosphere along the Paka and Gebeng Industrial Area. 

Author Biographies

Azman Azid, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Faculty Bioresources and Food Industry

Siti Noor Syuhada Muhammad Amin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Unisza Science and Medicine Foundation Centre

Saiful Iskandar Khalit, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Faculty Bioresources and Food Industry

Salwani Ismail, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Faculty of Medicine

Mohd Saiful Samsudin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Faculty Bioresources and Food Industry

Ku Mohd Kalkausar Ku Yusof, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Faculty Bioresources and Food Industry

Nurul Latiffah Abd Rani, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

East Coast Environmental Research Institute

Mohammad Azizi Amran, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Kulliyyah of Science

Kamaruzzaman Yunus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

University of Kuala Lumpur

Ahmad Shakir Mohd Saudi, Institute of Medical Science and Technology

Faculty Bioresources and Food Industry


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