Brainwave biomarkers of brain activity, physiology and biomechanics in cycling performance


  • Nurul Farha Zainuddin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Abdul Hafidz Omar Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Izwyn Zulkapri Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Najeb Jamaludin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Syafiq Miswan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



cycling, brain activity, physiology, biomechanics, EEG, biomarkers


Generally, in sports performance, the relationship between movement science and physiological function has been conducted integrating neuronal mechanism over the past decades. However, understanding those interaction between neural network and motor performance comprehensively in achieving optimal performance is still lacking, mainly in cycling. The purpose of this study was to discuss the issues in neuroscience related to brain activity, physiology and biomechanics in achieving optimal performance in cycling. As sports technology improves, more objective measurement can be demonstrated in solving specific issue in cycling, with optimization of performance as the main focus. In this review, the focus on brain activity will be based on the evaluation of the alpha and beta brainwaves as well as the alpha/beta ratio since they are biomarkers of EEG specifically related to cycling performance. Further in-depth understanding of the mechanism and interaction between brain activity, physiology and biomechanics in competitive cycling were acquired and discussed. Moreover, the biomarkers of brain activity related to cycling performance from previous studies were clearly identified and discussed and recommendations to be incorporated in future research were proposed.

Author Biography

Nurul Farha Zainuddin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering



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