Strain analysis in ferritic filler weldment by using the modified Williamson-hall method


  • Mohammad Dani PSTBM - BATAN
  • Aziz Khan Jahja PSTBM - BATAN
  • Parikin Parikin PSTBM - BATAN
  • Andon Insani PSTBM - BATAN
  • Riza Iskandar RWTH Aachen University



nano-structured materials, chemical synthesis, crystal structure, TEM, W-H analysis,


A strain analysis study of the Fe-Cr-Ni based low carbon steel for welding application prepared by a thermal-induction furnace were performed using a modified Williamson-Hall (MHW) method. Three different models, uniform deformation (UDM), the uniform deformation stress (UDSM), and the the uniform deformation energy density (UDEDM) models.  The optimal results showed by calculation result using UDM method indicate that uniform deformation was present on analyzed material. Based on UDM method, the welded material contains smaller grain size than the based materials. The calculated of average microstrain values of  7.6351×10-4 and -9.21×10-4 for based and welded materials respectively suggest different strain phenomena occurs during welding processes. Microstructure analysis by means of transmission electron microscopy reveal that based material consist of grains in 50-100 nm sizes and with planar defects are also detected.

Author Biography

Mohammad Dani, PSTBM - BATAN

Sarjana - Physics University of Indonesia, INDONESIA

Dip. -Ing.  RWTH-Aachen Germany

Dr. rer.nat. RWTH-Aachen Germany 


B. A. Pint, K. A. Terrani, M. P. Brady, T. Cheng, J. R. Keiser. (2013). High temperature oxidation of fuel cladding candidate materials in steam–hydrogen environments. J. Nucl. Mater., 440(1), 420–427.

A. K. Jahja (2010). Ferritic stainless steel synthesis from mining materials, In Evvy Kartini, B. V. R. Chowdari, Aziz Khan Jahja, S. Selvasekarapandian, Tutun Nugraha, Junichiro Mizusaki, Sudaryanto, S. J. Kennedy, Heri Jodi. Proceedings of the ICMST 2010. Paper presented at International Conference on Materials Science & Technology, Serpong (61-68). Serpong: PTBIN-BATAN & MRS-INA.

T. Darwinto and A.K. Jahja. (2010). Microstructure and crystal structure analysis of F1 ferritic steel. Indonesian Journal of Materials Science, 11 (3), 202-206.

K. A. Terrani, B. A. Pint, Y. -J. Kim, K. A. Unocic, Y. Yang, C. M. Silva, H. M. Meyer, R. B. Rebak. (2016). Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments. J. Nucl. Mat., 479, 36-47.

Noyan, Ismail C., Cohen, Jerome B. (1987). Residual Stress: Measurement by Diffraction and Interpretation, Springer Verlag, New York.

C. -H. Cho, S. –G. Lee, T. –H. Lee, J. Lee. (2013). Fabrication and electrical properties of YBa2Cu3O7-x thin film prepared by sol-gel method for uncooled infrared detectors. J. Ceram. Process. Res., 14(3), 436-439.

S. I. Talabi, O. B. Owolabi, J. A. Adebisi, T. Yahaya. (2014). Adv. Prod. Eng. Management (APEM), 9(4), 181–186.

A. N. Ezeilo and G. A. Webster. (1999). Advances in neutron diffraction for engineering residual stress measurements. Textures and Microstructures, 33, 151-171.

F. G. Kevin, N. G. Maxim, Y. Yukinori, L. S. Lance. (2014). Deformation behavior of laser welds in high temperature oxidation resistant Fe–Cr–Al alloys for fuel cladding applications. J. Nucl. Mat. 454, 352-358.

V. D. Mote, Y. Purushotham, B.N. Dole. (2012). Williamson-Hall analysis in estimation of lattice strain in nanometer-sized ZnO particles. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics. Retrieved from


H. Dai, J. A. Francis, H. J. Stone, H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, and P. J. Withers. (2008). Characterizing Phase Transformations and Their Effects on Ferritic Weld Residual Stresses with X-Rays and Neutrons. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 39(13), 3070-3078.

M. Dani, P. Untoro, T. Y. S. P. Putra, Parikin, J. Mayer and A. Dimyati. (2015). Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of High-Temperatur Oxidation of Fe-20Cr-5Al Alloy Prepared by Focused Ion Beam Technique . Makara J. Technol. 19(2), 85-89.

Parikin, M. Dani, A. K. Jahja, R. Iskandar and J. Mayer. (2017). Crystal Structure Investigation of Ferritic 73Fe24Cr2Si0.8Mn0.1Ni Steel for Multipurpose Structure Material Applications. IJTech, 8(5), 1-6.