Diffusivity optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction with co-solvent-ethanol from peanut skin
Keywords:Peanut skin, CO2 supercritical fluid extraction, yield, diffusivity coefficient
Peanut skin is a waste of industrial peanut butter that contains bioactive compound, which is used as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction as green technology is applied to extract peanut skin oil. The aim of this study is to optimize the operational conditions of pressure, temperature, and percentage of co-solvent to obtain oil yield and diffusivity coefficient. Determination of diffusivity coefficient was needed to evaluate the mass transfer between solvent and solute. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were different pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), different temperature (40, 55, 70 °C and different co-solvent percentage (2.5, 5, and 7.5 % (Vethanol/Vsolvent)). The extraction time was 3 hours respectively. The optimum condition were 29.95 MPa, 40 °C and 6.49 % (Vethanol/Vsolvent) with 14.95 % yield and 8.47E-12 m2/s diffusivity coefficient.
Ballard, T.S., P. Mallikarjunan, K. Zhou, and S. O’Keefe, (2010). Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidant compounds from peanut skins. Food Chemistry, 120(4): p. 1185-1192.
Hoang, V.H., P. Apostolova, J. Dostalova, F. Pudil, and J. Pokorny, (2008). Antioxidant Activity of Peanut Skin Extracts from Conventional and High-Oleic Peanuts. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 26(6): p. 447-457.
Nepote, V., N.R. Grosso, and C. Guzman, (2002). Extraction of antioxidant components from peanut skins. Grasas y aceites, 53(4): p. 391-395.
Yu, J., M. Ahmedna, I. Goktepe, and J. Dai, (2006). Peanut skin procyanidins: Composition and antioxidant activities as affected by processing. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19(4): p. 364-371.
Arsad, N.H., M.A.C. Yunus, M.A.A. Zaini, Z.A. Rahman, and Z. Idham, (2016). Effect of Operating Conditions of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide on Piper Betle Leave Oil Yield and Antioxidant Activity. International Journal of Applied Chemistry, 12(4): p. 741-751.
Mohd-Setapar, S.H., L.N. Yian, M.A.C. Yunus, I.-I. Muhamad, and M.A.A. Zaini, (2013). Extraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seeds oil using supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 7(2): p. 213-218.
Mustapa, A., Z. Manan, C.M. Azizi, N.N. Norulaini, and A.M. Omar, (2009). Effects of parameters on yield for sub-critical R134a extraction of palm oil. Journal of food engineering, 95(4): p. 606-616.
Mustapa, A., Z.A. Manan, C.M. Azizi, W. Setianto, and A.M. Omar, (2011). Extraction of β-carotenes from palm oil mesocarp using sub-critical R134a. Food Chemistry, 125(1): p. 262-267.
Yunus, A., NH, S. Zhari, Z. Idham, S. Setapar, and A. Mustapha, (2013). Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide condition on oil yield and solubility of Pithecellobium Jiringan (Jack) Prain seeds. Jurnal Teknologi,
: p. 45-50.
Yi, C., J. Shi, S.J. Xue, Y. Jiang, and D. Li, (2009). Effects of supercritical fluid extraction parameters on lycopene yield and antioxidant activity. Food chemistry, 113(4): p. 1088-1094.
Traybal, R.E., (1981). Mass Transfer Operation. Singapore:Mocraw Hill Book.
Yunus, M., C. Lee, and Z. Idham, (2011). Effects of variables on the production of red-fleshed pitaya powder using response surface methodology. Jurnal Teknologi, 56: p. 15-29.
Aziz, A., M. Yunus, N. Arsad, N. Lee, Z. Idham, and A. Razak.(2016) Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering,162(1) : p. 12031.
Kassama, L.S., J. Shi, and G.S. Mittal, (2008). Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction of lycopene from tomato skin with central composite rotatable design model. Separation and Purification Technology, 60(3): p. 278-284.
Liu, S., F. Yang, C. Zhang, H. Ji, P. Hong, and C. Deng, (2009). Optimization of process parameters for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Passiflora seed oil by response surface methodology. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 48(1): p. 9-14.
Sarip, M.S.M., Y. Yamashita, N.A. Morad, M.A.C. Yunus, and M.K.A. Aziz, (2016). Modeling and Optimization of the Hot Compressed Water Extraction of Palm Oil Using Artificial Neural Network. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, 49(7): p. 614-621.
Crank, J., (1975). The Mathematics of Diffusion. New York.Oxford university press.
Reverchon, E., G. Donsi, and L. Sesti Osseo, (1993). Modeling of
supercritical fluid extraction from herbaceous matrices. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 32(11): p. 2721-2726.
Esquıvel, M., M. Bernardo-Gil, and M. King, (1999). Mathematical models for supercritical extraction of olive husk oil. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 16(1): p. 43-58.
Herrero, M., A. Cifuentes, and E. Ibañez, (2006). Sub-and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalga. Food chemistry, 98(1): p. 136-148.
Danlami, J.M., M.A.A. Zaini, A. Arsad, and M.A.C. Yunus, (2015). Solubility assessment of castor (Ricinus communis L) oil in supercritical CO 2 at different temperatures and pressures under dynamic conditions. Industrial Crops and Products, 76: p. 34-40.
Dias, A.M.A., A.C.S. da Silva, J.R.S. Botelho, R.N.C. Júnior, H.C. de Sousa, and M.E.M. Braga, (2017). Temperature and density effects of the scCO2extraction of spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella flowers. Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 121: p. 32-40.
Machmudah, S., A. Shotipruk, M. Goto, M. Sasaki, and T. Hirose, (2006). Extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus p luvialis using supercritical CO2 and ethanol as entrainer. Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 45(10): p. 3652-3657.