Seasonal variations of water quality and heavy metals in two ex-mining lake using chemometric assessment approach


  • Nur Hishaam Sulaiman Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Saiful Iskandar Khalit Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Zati Sharip Water Quality and Environment Research Centre, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia
  • Mohd Saiful Samsudin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Azman Azid Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)



Physico-Chemical, Lake, mining, water quality, Principal Component Analysis, heavy metal.


Industries involving chemical and biological substances have become major economic growth in Malaysia. Mining contribute a lot of benefits such as employment and monetary profit but there are many associated environmental hazards as well. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary assessment on water quality and heavy metals contents at Puteri Lake and Puchong Lake in Malaysia for better perspective of the emerging issues. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was conducted to analyze the seasonal variation of water quality and heavy metal contents.  Based on the PCA results, most of the significant values of variation Varimax Factor (VF) are evidence that several parameters were affected by the temporal variation especially Ammonia Nitrogen (AN) and Total Phosphorus (TP). Dissolved Oxygen (0.8385, 0.9674) and Conductivity (0.9583, 0.8894) also showed significant variation in both lakes, Puteri and Puchong. Heavy metals content analysis at Puteri and Puchong Lake indicates that both lakes had different significant metal elements such as Fe, Zn, Na, Ni and Cu for Puteri Lake with percentage variation of 55.6 percent and As, Pb and Cd for Puchong Lake at 36.1 percent due to the different land use characteristic and history of mining. Water quality and heavy metal variations are due to anthropogenic (mining, construction and domestic waste) and natural processes (erosion, runoff and geological area) of the study areas. This environmental tool provided a more objective interpretation of water pollution status and sources. Therefore a lot of research needs to be carried out to assess the pollution impact of the area on the environment and for rehabilitation and tourism development of the study areas.

Author Biographies

Nur Hishaam Sulaiman, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Saiful Iskandar Khalit, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Mohd Saiful Samsudin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Azman Azid, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin


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