A preliminary study of marine water quality status using principal component analysis at three selected mangrove estuaries in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia


  • Saiful Iskandar Khalit Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Mohd Saiful Samsudin Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Azman Azid Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Kamaruzzaman Yunus International Islamic University Malaysia
  • Muhammad Amar Zaudi Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Zati Sharip National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia
  • Syazrin Syima Sharifuddin National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia
  • Tariq Mubarak Husin Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)




Marine water quality, Mangrove, Estuaries, South China Sea, Principal component analysis,


This research presents marine water quality status in three different mangrove estuaries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the surface water quality of three estuaries in east coast Peninsular Malaysia. The parameters measured were Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), total dissolved solid (TDS), ammonium (NH4-N), turbidity (TUR), total suspended solid (TSS) and coliform. Monthly sampling was performed during the dry season, from June 2016 until September 2016. Data were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA yielded two PCs where VF1 forms strong factor loadings for pH, NH4-N, SAL, and TDS signifying saltwater intrusion in mangrove area. VF2 designed strong factors of BOD, TUR and Coliform and strong negative loading of DO indicating anthropogenic pollutions in the area. This study output will be a baseline setting for future studies in mangrove estuary marine water quality. Mangrove marine water samples of future monitoring studies in mangrove estuary will benefit by enabling understanding of pollution loading and coastal water quality. It is essential to plan a workable water quality modelling as powerful tool to simulate marine water quality and forecast future consequences to facilitate mangrove biodiversity conservation.

Author Biographies

Saiful Iskandar Khalit, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Mohd Saiful Samsudin, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Azman Azid, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)

Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Kamaruzzaman Yunus, International Islamic University Malaysia

Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia

Muhammad Amar Zaudi, Universiti Putra Malaysia

Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University Putra Malaysia

Syazrin Syima Sharifuddin, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia

Water Quality and Environment Research Centre, National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia

Tariq Mubarak Husin, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)

Forestry and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)


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