Effect of gravity modulation on mixed convection flow of second grade fluid with different shapes of nanoparticles


  • Noraihan Afiqah Rawi
  • Mohd Rijal Ilias
  • Zaiton Mat Isa
  • Sharidan Shafie




Nanofluid, second grade fluid, inclined stretching plate, numerical solution


The problem of unsteady mixed convection flow of second grade fluid over an inclined stretching plate under the influence of different shapes of nanoparticles is studied in this paper. The influence of gravity modulation is also considered. Carboxymethyl cellulose solution (CMC) is chosen as the non-Newtonian base fluid. Based on Tiwari-Das nanofluid model, the governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme. The effect of different shapes and volume fraction of solid nanoparticles on the enhancement of convective heat transfer of second grade nanofluid associated with the effect amplitude of modulation, frequency of oscillation, and material parameter is discussed in details. The results indicated that, the needle-shaped nanoparticles give the highest enhancement on the heat transfer of second grade nanofluid compared to sphere and disk-shaped nanoparticles.


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