Effect of surface roughness on susceptibility of Escherichia coli biofilm to benzalkonium chloride


  • Jibrin Ndejiko Mohammed Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Nigeria and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0790-833X
  • Wan Rosmiza Zana Wan Dagang Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Biofilm, Benzalkonium chloride, surface roughness


The inherent natural tendency of bacteria to adhere and form biofilm on both biotic and abiotic surfaces and the consequential resistance to antimicrobial treatments remained a major concerned to humanity. The surface roughness of the sand blasted and cleaned stainless steel (type 304) substrates were measured using 3D measuring laser microscope before biofilm were developed on different surface roughness under continuous nutrient supply. The effect of benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as antibacterial agent on the biofilms was investigated. A concentration of 5 mg/mL BKC exert no pronounced effect on the biofilm formed on the three surfaces as compared to the 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL that removed approximately 50% of the cells from the respective surfaces. Conversely, the overall effect of the three concentrations tested were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) on the stainless steel coupon with the least average surface roughness of 0.38 ± 1.5 µm. These observations support the hypothesis that surface profile is one of the factors that influence biofilm susceptibility to antibacterial agents and reinforced the wide spread observation that microorganisms living as biofilm tends to be resistance to antimicrobial treatment especially at lower concentrations of 5 mg/mL.

Author Biographies

Jibrin Ndejiko Mohammed, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai, Nigeria and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

PhD. Research Student, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering

Wan Rosmiza Zana Wan Dagang, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Bioscience and Medical Engineering


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