Pre-clinical test of dental leucite glass-ceramics from local high grade silica sand: an in vitro study (cytotoxicity and genotoxicity)


  • Siti Mazatul Azwa Saiyed Mohd Nurddin Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral
  • Malek Selamat Pusat Penyelidikan Mineral



Ames Reverse Mutation assay, biocompatible, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, MTT assay,


The need for biocompatible  of dental materials for use in restorative dentistry has generated a requirement for cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays to screen compounds and characterize the potentially harmful effects of a material to oral tissues prior to clinical use.  The objective of the study was to determine the degree of biocompatibility of leusite glass-ceramics that have been produced from local high grade silica sand in terms of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assays.  In the present study,   the cyctotoxicity and mutagenicity were studied using the MTT and Ames Reverse Mutation.  In the MTT assay, a dose response cytotoxicity of leucite sample was evaluated in L929 cells.  The cells were treated with the concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.00, 100.00 and 200.00 mg/ml of the leucite sample for 24 hours.  The cytotoxicity was determined by assessing the cell viability through the reduction of tetrazolium salts (MTT).  The mutagenenicity of leucite sample was evaluated in S. typhirium TA98. TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and E. coli WP2 in the Ames Reverse Mutation assay.  Mutagenic effects were evaluated by comparing the mean number of revertant colonies of each extract concentraction with mean number of revertant colonies of the negative control.  In results of MTT assay evaluated that the leucite did not show a cytotoxic effect at all concentrations under the condition of the study.  Ames Reverse Mutation assay result proven that the leucite sample did not demonstrate a mutagenic effect under the condition of this study with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli


V. Rheinberger, Perspectives in dental ceramics. Glastech Ber. Glass Sci. Technol., 70C (1997) 339-400

M.J. Cattell, C. T. Knowles, R.L. Clarke, Dental Materials, 21 (2005) 811-822.

Y.H. Huang, J.J. Wang, Z.M. Liu, G.D. Zhang, Appl. Catal. A 466 (2013) 300.

G.S. Schuster, C.A. Lefebvre, J.C. Wataha, S.N. White, J. Calif. Dental Assoc. 24 (9) (1996) 17-31.

F.B. Bagambisa, H.P. Kappert, W. Schili, J. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 52 (1) (1994) 52-56.

I. L. Denry, Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 7 (2) (1996) 134-143.

F.M. Freimoser, C.A. Jakaob, M. Aebi, U. Tour, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65 (8) (1999) 3727-3729.

D.J. Liu, Y. Hermansson, L. Soremark, In vitro. Clin. Mater. 12 (4) (1993) 197-201

J.C. Wataha, J. Prosthet. Dent. 86 (2) (2001) 203-209.

E. M. Peter, G.G. Cristina, G. G. Franklin, Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal. 12 (2007) E258-266

A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Madler, N. Li, Science. 311 (2006) 622-627

J.C. Wataha, P.E. Lockwood, Dent. Mater. 14 (20) (1995) 9-14 Karelovic, A.; Ruiz, P. ACS Catal. 3 (2013) 2799.

M. Kristien, Z. Errol, Mutation Research. 455 (2000) 29-60