Investigation on Optimized Flavonoid Extraction from Leucas zeylanica and Its Anthelmintic Activity


  • Muhammad Luqman Selahuddeen Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Marouane Bouguerra Department of Agri-Food, Environmental and Animal Sciences, University of Udine, Via Sondrio 2A, 33100 Udine, Italy
  • Siti Ernieyanti Hashim Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Roswanira Abdul Wahab ᵃDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia, ᵈAdvanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Abdul Fatah A. Samad Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Faizuan Abdullah ᵃDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; ᶜCentre for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Ibnu Sina Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (ISI-SIR), Level 4, Block T02, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Optimization, Extraction, Flavonoid, Leucas zeylanica, Anthelmintic


Extraction has been the primary method of concentrating and obtaining a crude essence of plants, and to an extend fruits and nuts. In modern times, there are many methods of extraction developed from simple maceration to using Soxhlet extractor to microwave assisted extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction. However, the more time saving and energy efficient method for the extraction of plants needs to be investigated. This research explored optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of flavonoids from Leucas zeylanica and the optimization was done on parameters of sonication time (minutes), water bath temperature (°C), volume of solvent to solid ratio (ml/g) and solvent concentration (%) using response surface methodology (RSM). By measuring the total flavonoid content using aluminium colorimetric method and UV visible spectrophotometry, highest flavonoid yield is achieved with 30.38% increase compared to unoptimized method. This occurred with sonication time of 42 minutes, temperature of 55°C, solvent to solid ratio of 40 ml/g and solvent concentration of 100%. The resulting extract was then tested for its anthelmintic (anti-worm) ability, obtaining 40% efficacy of that of Albendazole.


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