Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5) as Photocatalyst: A Review


  • K. S. A. Sohaimi ᵃAdvanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia; ᵇFaculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02100 Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia
  • J. Jaafar Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • N. Rosman Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia



Water pollution has increased worldwide, sparking interest in photocatalysis, a viable water treatment approach. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a good photocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation due to its excellent crystallinity, high yield and recyclability, low cost, photo-corrosion resistance, small band gap (2.3 eV), improved electron mobility, and broad absorption range. Pure V2O5's photocatalytic efficiency is limited by inefficient photonic and quantum processes, and its tiny structure enables photogenerated carriers to recombine, reducing efficiency. This prevents widespread use of V2O5. This mini-review examines V2O5 as a potent visible-light photocatalyst, focusing on its structure, synthesis methods, and modifications that improve its efficiency. Hydrothermal, sol-gel, co-precipitation, solvothermal, and others are reviewed. The methods employed affect the photocatalyst's efficiency. Photogenerated electron-hole separation, charge transfer to catalyst surface or across two-phase catalyst interfaces, and reactive species interaction with hazardous contaminants are all affected. Photoredox uses have been explored for dyes, phenols, and pharmaceutical wastes. According to a review of the past decades, V2O5 has primarily been used for the degradation of dye pollutants, with fewer applications for pharmaceutical wastes and other pollutants. More research on V2O5's capabilities and qualities on diverse target pollutants is needed. This mini-review discusses present obstacles in producing vanadium pentoxide-based systems and future research prospects. Despite its potential as a photocatalyst, V2O5 has not been thoroughly researched as an electron storage material. Numerous investigations have shown that V2O5 can store energy like lithium batteries. This finding will likely motivate researchers and newcomers to explore V2O5's potential to synthesise nanomaterials with increased electron storage capacity, making it a good day-night photocatalyst. This review should improve future V2O5 research.


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