Marine Water Pollution Index in Intensive Shrimp Cultivation System in Jembrana
Keywords:Waters, marine, farm, pollution, shrimp, cultivation
Intensive shrimp cultivation with a high level of shrimp biomass and feeding will also result in high waste disposal. This condition can cause pollution in the surrounding waters and reduce the quality of the environment, which will threaten the sustainability of the environment and the sustainability of shrimp cultivation on the shrimp farm. The problem is the pollution load of shrimp farm wastes in the intensive cultivation system and the pollution status of coastal waters. This study aims to analyse the pollution load of shrimp farm wastes and the pollution status of coastal waters. This research was carried out in the coastal area of Jembrana District for four months, from March to June 2022. It was conducted by collecting data directly in the field. Samples were taken by purposive sampling method, namely at the inlet and outlet of the reservoir, the outlet of the shrimp farm, the outlet of the WWTP, coastal waters and marine waters. The pollution load level of shrimp farm waste at each station refers to the Minister of Environment Decree No. 54 of 2004, and the marine water pollution index refers to the Minister of Environment Decree No. 115 of 2003. The pollution load of shrimp farm waste based on the parameter concentration value has passed the thresholds for the quality standards of source water and maintenance water, which are: 1). Free ammonia (NH3-N) at ST 1, ST 2, ST 3, and ST 4; 2). Nitrate (NO3-N) at ST 1, ST 2, ST 3, and ST 4. A load of waste generated from shrimp rearing farms was free ammonia at 3.3 tons/ha/year and nitrate at 555.96 kg/ha/year. In contrast, the pollution load of waste discharged into coastal waters from shrimp farm wastewater treatment plants was free ammonia at 2.06 tons/ha/year and nitrate at 475.96 kg/ha/year. The pollution index of coastal waters in the shrimp farm cultivation area in Jembrana District was classified as moderately polluted with a Pij of 7.67 and heavily polluted (Pij = 11.09) according to 80 days of observation and 110 days of shrimp rearing. Meanwhile, in marine waters, the level of pollution was in the moderate category during the 80-day and 110-day observation periods. Maintaining the preservation of the marine environment requires an analysis of the capacity of the organic waste of shrimp farms on the carrying capacity of the aquatic environment. Therefore, it can be used as a reference in formulating policies for the development of Vannamei shrimp cultivation areas in Jembrana District, Jembrana Regency.
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