Dynamical System Analysis of the Prey-predator Interactions involving Prey Refuge and Herd Behaviors in Preys


  • Zati Iwani Abdul Manaf Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Mohd Hafiz Mohd Universiti Sains Malaysia




Prey-predator, prey refuge, group defense, numerical bifurcation analysis


By employing a prey refuge mechanism, more preys can be protected from predation. Prey species are also better protected from predation when they congregate in herds. However, what if the prey refuge and herd behavior mechanisms were combined in a system? To investigate this phenomenon, we consider two different prey-predator systems with prey refuge capacity. The first system is a simple prey-predator with prey refuge, whereas the second system considers prey refuge and prey herd behavior mechanisms. Using these models, we explore how different prey refuge strategies affect species interactions in both systems. To accomplish this, we use theoretical techniques (e.g., computing steady states and performing the stability analysis) and numerical bifurcation analysis to demonstrate various dynamical behaviors of these two prey-predator systems. Once prey refuge is treated as a bifurcation parameter, we observe the occurrence of supercritical Hopf and transcritical bifurcations in both systems. Furthermore, we explore the dynamic effects of prey refuge and predator handling time on species population interactions: our findings reveal that using both prey refuge and herd behavior as escape strategies; it is possible to dilute the predation pressure and ensure species biodiversity.


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