Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Truncated Cone in a Hybrid Nanofluid


  • Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed Centre for Mathematical Sciences,College of Computing & Applied Sciences,Universiti Malaysia Pahang,26300 Gambang,Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur,Malaysia
  • Anuar Mohd Ishak School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi,Selangor, MALAYSIA
  • Ioan Pop Department of Mathematics, Babeṣ-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  • Nurul Farahain Mohammad Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
  • Siti Khuzaimah Soid Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 UiTM Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia



Free convection, full-cone, hybrid nanofluid, truncated cone,


The present study investigates the mathematical model of free convection boundary layer flow from a vertical truncated cone immersed in Cu/water nanofluid and Al2O3-Cu/water hybrid nanofluid. The governing non-linear equations are first transformed to a more convenient set of partial differential equations before being solved numerically using the Keller-box method. The numerical values for the reduced Nusselt number and the reduced skin friction coefficient are obtained and illustrated graphically as well as temperature profiles and velocity profiles. Effects of the alumina Al2O3 and copper Cu nanoparticle volume fraction for hybrid nanofluid are analyzed and discussed. It is found that the high-density and highly thermal conductivity nanoparticles like copper contributed more in skin friction and convective heat transfer capabilities. The appropriate nanoparticles combination in hybrid nanofluid may reduce the friction between fluid and surface but yet still gave the heat transfer capabilities comparable to metal nanofluid.


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