Intelligent Cuckoo Search Algorithm of PID and Skyhook Controller for Semi-Active Suspension System using Magneto-Rheological Damper


  • A. H. Mohd Yamin
  • I. Z. Mat Darus Sekolah Kejuruteraan Mekanikal Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.
  • N.S. Mohd Nor
  • M. H. Ab Talib



Quarter car model, Semi-Active (SA) suspension, PID Controller, Skyhook Controller, Cuckoo Search (CS) Algorithm


This article introduces the application of the Cuckoo Search (CS) Algorithm to tune Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and Skyhook controller for the semi-active (SA) suspension system further to improve the vehicle’s ride comfort and stability. Meanwhile, the PID-CSA and Skyhook-CSA intelligent approaches have been compared to the passive suspension system. The performances of the PID controller and Skyhook controller are optimised by Cuckoo Search (CS) Algorithm, respectively. The system’s mean square error (MSE) is defined as an objective function for optimising the proposed controllers. The performance of the proposed PID-CSA and Skyhook-CSA controllers are evaluated with the passive suspension system in the form of body acceleration, body displacement, and tire acceleration. The sinusoidal road profile is set as the disturbance of this system. The percentage improvement for body acceleration and body displacement achieved about 25% for the PID-CSA controller and 1-4% for Skyhook-CSA. These simulated results reflect that the proposed controllers outperformed in comparison with other considered methods to obtain the most effective vehicle stability and ride comfort.


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