Optimizing levulinic acid from cellulose catalyzed by HY-zeolite immobilized ionic liquid (HY-IL) using response surface methodology


  • Muhammad Anif Abu Zarin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Muzakkir Mohammad Zainol Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Nor Aishah Saidina Amin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Levulinic acid (LA) is an ideal platform chemical with various applications. Ionic liquid,1,4-methyl sulfonic acid imidazolium tetrachloroaluminate ([MSIM][AlCl4]) has been immobilized into HY zeolite and tested for the conversion of cellulose to LA. Response surface methodology (RSM), based on Box–Behnken design (BBD), was employed to identify the optimum conditions for LA production. Experimental results indicate that the second-order model was sufficient for all independent variables with R2 = 0.90. The optimum temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage, and feedstock loading for cellulose conversion are 200 °C, 7 h, 0.6 g, and 0.3 g, respectively with LA yield of 27.2%. Meanwhile, the LA yield from oil palm frond (OPF) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) at the optimum condition is 24.1% and 21.3%, respectively. The efficiency of OPF and EFB for LA production is 75% and 72%, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of HY-IL for biomass conversion to levulinic acid under mild condition

Author Biographies

Muhammad Anif Abu Zarin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering,Faculty of Engineering

Muzakkir Mohammad Zainol, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering,Faculty of Engineering

Nor Aishah Saidina Amin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering,Faculty of Engineering


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