Characterization of nio-bczy as composite anode prepared by a one-step sol-gel method
A high polarization resistance (Rp) at intermediate temperature (500–800°C) operation has become one of the major challenges in the development of proton-conducting fuel cells (PCFCs). Rp is the resistance of the cell that contributes by the electrodes parts which are anode and cathode as well as their interfacial components. The present study focused on the NiO-Ba(Ce0.6Zr0.4)0.9Y0.1O3-δ (NiO-BCZY) composite anode and its interfacial parts where the oxidation process takes place. The NiO-BCZY with a ratio of 50:50 was prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray (FESEM/EDX), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). At calcination temperature of 1100°C, NiO and BCZY oxides can preserve their phases to form composite anode as proven by XRD analysis. Morphology of the composite anode as observed by FESEM was spherical with particle size in the range of 30-70 nm. XRD analysis showed the formation of Ni-BCZY after undergoing reduction process under wet H2:N2 (10%:90%). As confirmed by the EIS data, the increased conductivity of the composite anode in wet H2:N2 (10%:90%) indicates that the NiO in the composite anode was reduced to Ni metal. The fabricated NiO-BCZY composite anode has shown a good potential to be a promising anode in PCFC application.
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