Effects of extraction method on dry pulp yield and morphological properties of pineapple leaf fibre


  • Dayangku Intan Munthoub Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman
  • Lew Jin Hau
  • Rohah A. Majid Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Lai Jau Choy Universit Teknologi Malaysia




Fibre extraction, pineapple leaf fibre, sodium hydroxide, dry pulp yield, extraction method


Pineapple leaves (PALs) are useful agro wastes which have the potentials to be used as an alternative source of non-wood natural fiber. In this study, different extraction methods had been investigated to identify the most feasible pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) extraction method, based on the dry pulp yield and the PALF morphology. The manual retting using a ceramic scrapper led to low yield of around 1.8 % (wt.), while water retting for 21 d led to about 6.0 % (wt.) yield of dark greenish dry pulp. Both methods resulted in PALFs which still contained with non-cellulosic residues, as verified by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging. The chemical extraction of PALF using various NaOH solution concentrations (i.e. 1 to 20 % (wt.)) gave different yields. Based on the SEM images, clean and smooth surfaces of fibrils were observed when the NaOH solution concentrations applied at or higher than 6 % (wt.), implying that all impurities including lignin and wax had been completely removed. The mechanical-chemical extraction method produced significantly more dry pulp compared to the chemical extraction method at the same NaOH solution concentration. This is attributed to the fact that the crushed PAL has a larger surface area, thus providing more reaction possibilities with NaOH solution. Finally, it was found that the crushed PAL that cooked at 90 °C needed at least 90 min of cooking time to obtain satisfying whitish dry pulp.

Author Biographies

Rohah A. Majid, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering

Senior Lecturer

Lai Jau Choy, Universit Teknologi Malaysia

Bioprocess and Polymer Engineering

Senior Lecturer


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