Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles-peanut shell composite for catalytic reduction of methyl blue


  • Mustaffa Shamsuddin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Fazleen Kamaludin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Suhaila Borhamdin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, Phaleria biosynthesis, Phaleria macrocarpa, peanut shell, methyl blue


Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been recognized as an active and effective catalyst for many organic transformations. Currently, there is a growing need to develop AuNPs synthesis process that avoids the use of toxic chemicals or high energy requirement. In this research, the aqueous Phaleria macrocarpa (Mahkota dewa) dried fruit extract was used in the biosynthesis of AuNPs immobilized on peanut shell powder. The peanut shell supported AuNPs was characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), Nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. The biosynthesized AuNPs was characterized by the appearance of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 534 nm in the UV–Vis spectrum. The XRD, TEM and TGA analytical data of AuNPs/Peanut shell composite indicated that the AuNPs with face-centred cubic (fcc) crystalline shape, mostly spherical and average particle size of 20.00 ± 4.19 nm were well dispersed on the peanut shell powder support. The FTIR analysis suggested that the C=O and O-H groups in the peanut shell powder have strong affinity to bind and stabilize the AuNPs. The BET surface area of the AuNPs/Peanut shell composite catalyst determined is 35.39 m² g-1 while the BJH pore volume is 0.035 cm3 g-1 with pore diameter of 2.07 nm. AAS elemental analytical data showed the Au loading is 0.03 mmol per gram of catalyst. The catalytic performance of the AuNPs/Peanut shell composite was investigated for the reduction of aqueous methyl blue (MB) at room temperature. The reduction of MB obeyed a pseudo-first-order reaction with the highest rate constant of 0.124 min-1. The supported AuNPs/Peanut shell composite catalyst could be easily recovered and reused for at least three times without significant loss of activity

Author Biographies

Mustaffa Shamsuddin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Chemistry

Fazleen Kamaludin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Deaoartment of Chemistry

Suhaila Borhamdin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Chemistry


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