Adsorption isotherms and kinetics of phosphate on waste mussel shell


  • Nur Atikah Abdul Salim Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Hafiz Puteh Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Noorul Hudai Abdullah Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky Djuanda University
  • Mohd A’ben Zulkarnain Rudie Arman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Hairul Khamidun Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Achmad Syafiuddin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Noraziah Ahmad
  • Zainab Mat Lazim
  • Maria Nuid
  • Nur Azmira Zainuddin



Adsorption, phosphate, waste mussel shell, Langmuir isotherm model, solute removal efficiency


In this study, removal of phosphate (PO43−) from aqueous solutions using waste mussel shell (WMS) was examined. The physicochemical characteristics of WMS were identified. In the batch experiments, the effects of contact time and adsorbent dosage (m) on the PO43− adsorption by the WMS were scrutinised. The maximum PO43− removal efficiency (E) was 83.4% at 144 h contact time for WMS dosage of 10 g. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the adsorption of PO43− onto WMS was evaluated using pseudo-first-order (PFO) and pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic models. The experimental data was fitted well with the PSO kinetic model. In the isotherm studies, Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied. The Langmuir isotherm model was well described with the PO43− adsorption. The results indicated that WMS has a good potential to adsorb PO43− from water and thus could improve environmental quality. Furthermore, this study investigated on how the Langmuir isotherm for basic adsorption could be applied to predict E or required m under a given set of initial conditions (i.e., initial solute concentration, solution volume, and adsorbent dosage). This was accomplished by combining the Langmuir isotherm with mass balance of solutes between liquid solution and solid adsorbent phases.

Author Biographies

Nur Atikah Abdul Salim, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Civil Engineering,Faculty of Engineering

Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Water Security, Research Institute for Sustainable Environment,

Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Faculty of Science

Noorul Hudai Abdullah, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Centre For Diploma Studies, Faculty of Civil Engineering

Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky, Djuanda University

Department of Postgraduate Studies

Mohd A’ben Zulkarnain Rudie Arman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Civil Engineering,Faculty of Engineering

Mohd Hairul Khamidun, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering

Muhammad Abbas Ahmad Zaini, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Achmad Syafiuddin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering


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