Optimization of lipase-catalyzed synthesis of flavour esters in solvent free system


  • Syamsul Kamar Muhamad
  • Salina Mat Radzi
  • Siti Salhah Othman
  • Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
  • Hanina Mohd Noor




Enzyme, Lipase, Esterification, Optimization,


The effects of important reaction parameters for enhancing flavour esters formation through lipase-catalyzed reaction were investigated in this study.
Various commercial immobilized lipases were used to catalyze the esterification reaction between short-chain fatty acids and alcohols to produce flavour esters which are nonyl caprylate and ethyl valerate which differ in chain length of esters. These synthetic flavour esters with fruity notes are widely used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of flavour esters. A maximum percentage for nonyl caprylate with conversion of flavour esters more than 90 % in a solvent-free system was successfully obtained under the following conditions: reaction time (RT), 5 hours; reaction temperature, 40 °C; amount of immobilized lipase, 25 % w/w of total substrate and shaking speed 200 rpm. Compared to ethyl valerate, a maximum percentage conversion of flavour ester more than 80 % in solvent free system was successfully obtained under following conditions: reaction time (RT), 45 minutes; reaction temperature, 40 °C; amount of immobilized lipase, 15 % w/w of total substrate and shaking speed 200 rpm. Comparison between these two ester showed that the chain length give an effect to optimize the reaction condition in esterification reaction.


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