Anticancer potential and chemical profile of agarwood hydrosol
This is the first report discussing the chemical profile of agarwood hydrosol and its potential anticancer effects. Agarwood hydrosols, from two batches, obtained from Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, were used in this study. Calu-3 cancer cells were used as a model cell line for lung cancer. The cells were cultured in Eagle’s minimum essential medium (EMEM) supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS). The study was carried out in two phases, namely the anticancer study via an attachment (AT) assay and cell viability (CV) assay, and then profiling the hydrosol from the two batches via GCMS and hSPME-GCMS. Design Expert software’s two-factor face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used to study the effects of agarwood hydrosol amount and time of exposure on cell attachment (AT) and viability (CV). The findings suggest that agarwood hydrosols of Aquilaria malaccensis possess both anti-attachment and cytotoxic effects on Calu-3 lung cancer cells. A linear model was developed for anti-attachment effects and a quadratic model for the cytotoxic effects with exposure duration being significant in both cases. From the profiling data, 1-tricosene and 16-hentriacontanone were identified as potential contributors to the anti-attachment and/or cytotoxic activity observed. In conclusion, agarwood hydrosol holds a potential to be further investigated as a source of anti-cancer compounds.
Abbas, P., Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Amid, A. 2017. Cytokinetic study of uninfected agarwood branch ethanolic extract on breast cancer cells. Asia-Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, 25, 1-7.
Abbas, P., Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Amid, A., Mohd Salleh, H., Jamal, P., Jaswir, I. 2014. Anti-cancer potential of agarwood distillate. J Pure Appl Microbio, 8, 871-4.
Ariyoshi-Kishino, K., Hashimoto, K., Amano O., Saitoh, J., Kochi, M., Sakagami, H. 2010. Tumor-specific cytotoxicity and type of cell death induced by benzaldehyde. Anticancer Res, 30, 5069-76.
Bahrani, H., Mohammad, J., Paydar, M. J., Rothan, H. A. 2014. Isolation and characterisation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Aquilaria subintegra for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curr Alzheimer Res, 11, 206-14.
Camarasu, C. C. 2000. Headspace SPME method development for the analysis of volatile polar residual solvents by GC-MS. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 23, 197-210.
Chetpattananondh, P. 2012. Overview Of The Agarwood Oil Industry. IFEAT International Conference, 4th - 8th November 2012, 131-8. Singapore.
Falconer, J. S., Ross, J. A., Fearon, K. C., Hawkins, R. A., O'Riordain, M. G., Carter, D. C. 1994. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and other fatty acids on the growth in vitro of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer, 69, 8.
Fermor, B. F., Masters, J. R., Wood, C. B., Miller, J., Apostolov, K., Habib, NA. 1992. Fatty acid composition of normal and malignant cells and cytotoxicity of stearic, oleic and sterculic acids in vitro. Eur Journal of Cancer, 28, 1143-7.
Fotakis, G., Timbrell, J. A. 2006. In vitro cytotoxicity assays: Comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell lines following exposure to cadmium chloride. Toxicol Lett, 160, 171-7.
Freshney, R. I. 2005. Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique. Wiley.
Gameil, A. H. 2012. Process Optimization Of Production Of Healthy Roselle Drink Enhanced With Agarwood Distillates. Unpublished Report, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur.
Ha, Y. L., Grimm, N. K., Pariza, M. W. 1987. Anticarcinogens from fried ground beef: heat-altered derivatives of linoleic acid. Carcinogenesis, 8, 1881-7.
Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Abbas, P., Amid, A. 2014. Screening of anticancer activity from agarwood essential oil. Phcog Res, 6, 191-4.
Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Kerr, P. G., Abbas, P., Mohd Salleh, H. 2016. Aquilaria spp. (agarwood) as source of health beneficial compounds: a review of traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J.Ethnopharmacol 189, 331-60.
Ibrahim, A. H., Al-Rawi, S. S., Abdul Majid, A. M., Ab Rahman, N. N., Abo Salah, K. M., AbKadir, M. O. 2011. Separation and fractionation of Aquilaria malaccensis oil using supercritical fluid extraction and the cytotoxic properties of the extracted oil. Procedia Food Sci, 1,1953-9.
Igarashi, M., Miyazawa, T. 2001. The growth inhibitory effect of conjugated linoleic acid on a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, is induced by a change in fatty acid metabolism, but not the facilitation of lipid peroxidation in the cells. Biochim et Biophys Acta, 1530,162-71.
IUPAC. 1987. Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester. In Standard Methods for Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives (7th ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Kakino, M., Tazawa, S., Maruyama, H., Tsuruma, K., Araki, Y. 2010. Laxative effects of agarwood on low-fiber diet-induced constipation in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med, 10.
Kilonzo, M., Ndakidemi, P. A., Chacha, M. 2017. Mystroxylon aethiopicum chloroform root bark extracts phytochemical analysis using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 9(4), 44-50.
Lee, I. L., Kanthimathi, M. S., Wiart, C., Malik, N. A., Kuppusamy, U. R. 2008. Inhibitory effects of leaf extract of Apama tomentosa on ovarian cancer. J Trop Med Plants, 9, 378-81.
Leon-Camacho, M., Morales, M. T., Aparicio, R. 2013. Chromatographic Methodologies: Compounds for olive oil traceability issues. In ‘Handbook of Olive Oil: Analysis and Properties’, Eds Aparicio-Ruiz R and Hardwood J. Springer, New York pp 170-1.
Manar Eissa, Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Zainurin, N. A. A. 2018. Aquilaria malaccensis leaf as an alternative source of anti-inflammatory compounds. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 8(4-2), 1625-1632.
Murti, Y., Mishra, P. 2014. Synthesis and evaluation of flavanones as anticancer agents. Indian J Pharm Sci, 76, 163-6.
Olubunmi, A., Olatunji, A. G. 2010. Epicuticular wax and volatiles of Kigelia pinnata leaf extract. Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 14, 797-806.
Panigrahi, S., Muthuraman, M. S., Natesan, R., Pemiah, B. 2014. Anticancer activity of ethanolic extract of Solanum torvum SW. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 6, 93-8.
Pranakhon, R., Pannangpetch, P., Aromdee, C. 2011. Antihyperglycemic activity of agarwood leaf extracts in STZ-induced diabetic. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol, 33, 405-10.
Rasheed, S. A., Efferth, T., Asangani, I. A., Allgayer, H. 2010. First evidence that the antimalarial drug artesunate inhibits invasion and in vivo metastasis in lung cancer by targeting essential extracellular proteases. Int J Cancer, 2010; 127, 1475-85.
Saibu, G. M. 2012. Biochemical investigation of anti-cancer activity of Tulbaghia violacea. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from University of the Western Cape: http://etd.uwc.ac.za/xmlui/handle/11394/3072
Subavathy, P., Thilaga, R. D. 2016. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from whole body tissue methanolic extract of Cypraea arabica (L.1758). World J Pharm Res, 5, 800-6.
Yu, J., Wang, D., Wang, L., Wang, P., Hu, Y., Ying, K. 2009. Detection of lung cancer with volatile organic biomarkers in exhaled breath and lung cancer cells. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1137, 198-201.
Zainurin, N. A. A, Hashim, Y. Z. H-Y., Mohamed Azmin, N.F., Abbas, P. 2018. Agarwood leaf essential oil characterization and effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 8(4-2),