Determination of sugar types and content in formulated milk of infants and children in Malaysia


  • Noor Nazahiah Bakri Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Intan Nur Amalina Rashid Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Fathin Faiza Abdul Rahman Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Zatilfarihiah Rasdi Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nor Faezah Md Bohari Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Nawwal Alwani Mohd Radzi Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Ahmad Nadzri Mohamad Universiti Teknologi MARA



Formulated milk, sugar content, free sugar, infants and children


High sugar intake contributes to an increased risk of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and dental caries. Infants and young children who drink formulated milk have been exposed to free sugars early in their life. Objectives: To determine the amount of free sugar in different brands of formulated milk that are available in Malaysia and to compare the recommended serving size of the formulated milk according to the guideline of daily free sugar intake by WHO for infants and children. Methods: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the sugar amount in five different brands of age-specific formulated milk (0-9 years old). The sugar amount for each sample was determined by 1:100 dilution of milk and HPLC for 8 minutes. Percentage of free sugar intake per day was calculated based on the HPLC result and the recommended serving size per day was compared to the nutritional label of the formulated milk and further compared to the recommended calorie intake by WHO. Results: The total free sugar for all samples were ranged from 0.08% - 23.28% out of the total calories for each age. One out of the 20 aged-specific formulated milk exceeded the WHO recommendation of free sugar intake per day. Conclusion: The amount of sugar in formulated milk should be monitored by health policy as some of the formulated milk has exceeded the recommended free sugar intake by WHO.

Author Biographies

Noor Nazahiah Bakri, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre for Population Oral Health and Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry

Intan Nur Amalina Rashid, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre for Population Oral Health and Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry

Fathin Faiza Abdul Rahman, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre for Population Oral Health and Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry

Zatilfarihiah Rasdi, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre of Preclinical Sciences Studies, Faculty of Dentistry

Nor Faezah Md Bohari, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre for Population Oral Health and Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry

Nawwal Alwani Mohd Radzi, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Centre for Population Oral Health and Clinical Prevention, Faculty of Dentistry

Ahmad Nadzri Mohamad, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Information Management


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