Use of reliability tested clinically data towards a portable device measurement kit system for upper limb spasticity


  • Khairunnisa Johar Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Noor Ayuni Che Zakaria Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Low Cheng Yee Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Nurul Atiqah Othman Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Muhammad Afiq Ridhuan Universiti Teknologi MARA



Upper limb, stroke, rehabilitation


Spasticity refers to the abnormal symptom of having resistance in the joints when patients tried to make a movement. Patients with spasticity need to undergo multiple therapy sessions with medical intervention to ensure that the upper limb achieve maximal function. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) is frequently used in clinical assessment with grading on a scale. However, this scale is limited in sensitivity and the accuracy of this evaluation is dependent on the physician’s and therapist’s experience. This study suggests developing a portable measurement device kit system during clinical assessment to reduce inter- and intra-rater variability, and to assist clinicians in making quick clinical evaluation of spasticity. In this study, 19 patients were involved in the data acquisition. Assessment data from upper limb of patients with spasticity were recorded using a Manual Muscle Tester (MMT) and digital goniometer to measure force and the angular motion. During the assessment, patients were examined through slow and fast motion for spasticity evaluation. The collected data were analyzed to study intra-rater reliability value by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) values for all patients were in range 0.78 to 0.89. It can be considered that the collected data was reliable and can be used to formulate a model towards the development of a portable device measurement kit system for upper limb spasticity.

Author Biographies

Khairunnisa Johar, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Noor Ayuni Che Zakaria, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Medicine

Low Cheng Yee, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Nurul Atiqah Othman, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Muhammad Afiq Ridhuan, Universiti Teknologi MARA

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


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