Phenol degradation behavior via photocatalytic of ZnO/Ag2CO3/Ag2O nanoparticles


  • Nurafiqah Rosman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysiaa
  • Nor Hafiza Ismail Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Nor Asikin Awang Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Ahmad Fauzi Ismail Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Juhana Jaafar Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Zawati Harun Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia



Photocatalysis, phenol degradation, heterostructure, ZnO, Ag2CO3/Ag2O


The present study successfully conducted the synthesis of ZnO/Ag2CO3/Ag2O nanocomposite using co-precipitate technique and phase transformation route. The resulting nanocomposite photocatalyst were characterized by TEM and UV–vis spectra, while their photocatalytic activities were subsequently tested in the mineralization of phenol solution. Meanwhile, the heterojunction of Ag2CO3/Ag2O over ZnO lattice that influenced the surface-phase structure of the nanocomposites managed to generate higher absorption in visible light region in UV NIR spectra. In addition, the surface phase structure was produced via Ag2O crystal growth over Ag2CO3 which was heterojunctioned on ZnO lattice, thus leading to an effective charge carrier transfer that indirectly suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. The results of the current research on the photocatalytic behaviour of the nanocomposites demonstrated that the phenol peak area for ZnO/Ag2CO3/Ag2O under UV light decreased 25.4 % compared to visible light radiation of 14.1 %. The presence of photo-oxidation products was detected in the liquid phase products in phenol-oxidation even though phenol was not completely removed. Overall, it was remarkable to discover that the formation of Ag2CO3/Ag2O mixed phase heterojunction over the surface of ZnO significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

Author Biographies

Nurafiqah Rosman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysiaa

Centre of Advanced Materials and Renewable Resources (CAMARR), Faculty of Science and Technology

Nor Hafiza Ismail, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Nor Asikin Awang, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Juhana Jaafar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Zawati Harun, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Integrated Material and Process, Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Centre (AMMC), Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


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