Titanium dioxide incorporated thin film composite membrane for bisphenol a removal


  • Noor Syahida Mat Anan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mukhlis A. Rahman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Farhana Aziz Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Nur Shazrynda Md Shahrodin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Bisphenol A, endocrine disruptive compounds, thin film composite


The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of Polyamide (PA) thin film composite (TFC) membrane immobilized with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) particles on the removal of Endocrine Disruptive Compounds (EDC). Since 1990`s, an increasing environmental pollution by EDC had been noticed, for instance in surface waters, agricultural areas, and atmosphere, especially since the analytical methods for EDC detection have been continuously improved. The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer which categorized as an EDC that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. In this study, PA/TiO2 TFC membrane was fabricated via interfacial polymerization (IP), using Polysulfone (PSf) flat sheet as  substrate membrane. Trimesoyl chloride (TMC) and m-phenylenediamine (MPD) have been used as monomer and aqueous solution, respectively.  The performance of PA/TiO2 TFC membrane and PSf substrate membrane on the removal of BPA has been compared and analysed. The membrane was analyzed for several characterizations using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and water contact angle analysis. Synthetic wastewater using 100ppm of BPA solution has been prepared for membranes performance. The existence of PA/TiO2 TFC on top of PSf membrane has been confirmed by FESEM and EDX image. Meanwhile, the hydrophilicity of PSF membranes has been improved with the existence of TFC which is good for water treatment system since it improves membrane’s pure water flux. The rejection of BPA has been done using ultrafiltration system and it was found that PA/TiO2 TFC membrane could reject almost 99% of BPA from feed solution. From the data obtained in this study, the TFC membrane is found to be convincing for wastewater treatment that contains EDC.

Author Biographies

Noor Syahida Mat Anan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Mukhlis A. Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Farhana Aziz, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering

Nur Shazrynda Md Shahrodin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering


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