The election of edible and non edible crop for biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia with AHP-BCR and GC analysis
Keywords:AHP, Biodiesel, Benefit-Cost Ratio, GC Analysis, TLC Analysis
The increasing trend of domestic fuel consumption that is not followed by domestic fuel production creating problem for Indonesian government to fulfill the shortage of fuel consumption. The high dependence of Indonesian government on imported fuel creates some problem due to the large subsidy that must be given as a result of the increasing oil prices. This makes the development of biofuel important, especially biodiesel with an abundant raw material in Indonesia. In this work, the best alternative and the composition of raw materials for making biodiesel were investigated by using Gas Chromatographic (GC) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) - benefit-cost ratio (BCR). With GC analysis, it is expected to know the content of triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) content in crude oil for each alternative raw material. While the AHP-BCR analysis is expected to know the best alternative to raw materials for biodiesel production. The alternative raw materials that are selected namely Calophyllum inophyllum and Jatropha curcas. The selection of alternative raw material based on oil content, yield, and raw material cost. The criteria used for benefit hierarchy structure are economic, social, raw material availability, environment and technical. As for the hierarchy of cost structure, the criteria are the price of raw materials, opportunity cost, processing cost, environmental cost, and social cost. The present study clearly proved that C. inophyllum and Jatropha curcas oil potentially become the best alternative material for biodiesel production. The result shown from benefit-cost ratio were almost identical (jatropha curcas, 1.01 and C.Inophyllum, 1). From GC analysis, C. Inophyllum became the potential alternative material because it has the biggest oil content for crude (75.99%) and after purification (94.24%).
Ahmad, A.L., Mat Yasin, N.H., Derek, C.J.C., Lim, J.K. 2011. Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev.15, 584–93.
Aparamarta, H.W., Saputra, T., Claratika, A., Ju, Y.H., Gunawan, S. 2016. Separation and Purification of Triacylglycerols from Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil by Batchwise Solvent Extraction. Ind. Eng. Chem. Re. 55, 3113-3119.
Aparamarta, H.W., Hapsari, S., Ismawan, R., Anggraeni, V., Widjaja, A., Widjaja, T., Ju, Y.H., Gunawan, S. 2018. Separation of Xanthone and Vitamin E from Calophyllum inophyllum Leaf. MJFAS. 14, 4.
Aparamarta, H.W., Anggraini, D., Istianingsih, D., Susanto, D.F., Widjaja, A., Ju, Y.H., Gunawan, S. 2017. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil. AIP Conference Proceedings 1840, 060004 (2017); doi: 10.1063/1.4982284
Aparamarta, H.W., Qadariyah, L., Ju, Y.H., Gunawan, S. 2018. Separation and Identification of Fatty Acid in Triacylglycerol Isolated from Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil. JEAS. 13, 2.
Alston, J.M., Chalfant, J.A., Piggott, N.E. 2002. Estimating and testing the compensated double-log demand model. Appl. Econ. 34, 1177-186.
Azam, M.M., Waris, A.,Nahar, N.M. 2005. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India. Biomass Bioenerg., 29, 293–302.
Atasie, V.N., Akinhanmi, T.F., 2009. Extraction, compositional studies and physico chemical characteristics of palm kernel oil. Pak. J. Nutr., 8, 800-803.
Atabani, A.E., Silitonga, A.S., Ong, H.C., Mahlia, T.M.I., Masjuki, H.H., Badruddin, I.A., Fayaz, H., 2013. Non-edible vegetable oils: A critical evaluation of oil extraction, fatty acid compositions, biodiesel production, characteristics,engine performance and emissions production. Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., 18, 211–245.
Atabani, A.E., Cesar, A.D. 2014. Calophyllum Inopyllum L. – A prospective non-edible biodiesel feedstock. Studi of Biodiesel production, properties, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance. Renew. Sust. Energ Rev. 37, 644–655.
Berti, M.T., Johnson, B.L. 2008. Physiological changes during seed development of cuphea. Field Crops Res. 106, 163-170.
Bruneton, J. 1993. Plantes Medicinales, Technique and Documents Lavoisier, 2nd edition; Pharmacognosie–Phytochime: Paris, p 300.
Cakmakli, U., Unal, M.K. 1988. Composition and mineral distribution of rapeseed varieties tested for adaptation in turkey. Fat. Sci. Technol., 10, 386-389.
Gunawan, S., Fabian, C., Ju, Y.H. 2008. Isolation and purification of fatty acid steryl esters from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47, 7013-7018.
Gunawan, S., Aparamarta, H.W., Kuswandi, K., Widjaja, A., Ju, Y.H. The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. Ind, Crops Prod. 2013, 52, 286-291.
Gui, M.M., Lee, K.T., Bhatia, S. 2008. Feasibility of edible oil vs.non-edible oil vs.waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock. Energy. 33, 1646–53.
Hoffmann, G. 1989. The chemistry and technology of edible oils and fats and their fat products. Academic, New York, pp139-200.
Jean M. 2009. Trees in sustainable farming Auroville, TamilNadu [cited 4 February 2011]; Availablefrom: /http:// www.csfbg.org /reports / Trees%20in %20 sustainable %20 farming%20Report.pdfS.
Kansedo, J., Lee, K.T., Bhatia, S., 2009. Cerbera odollam (sea mango) oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 88, 1148-1150
Kusmiyati, Sugiharto, A. 2010. Production of Biodiesel from Oleic Acid and Methanol by Reactive Distillation. BCREC, 5 , 1 – 6.
Lee, Y.F., Gibot, A. 1986. Indigenous edible plants of Sabah; FRC publication, Sabah Forestry Department: Sandakan, 9.
Lemmens, R.H.M..J. 2003. Calophyllum L. In: Lemmens RHMJ, Bunyapraphatsara N (eds) Plant resources of South-East Asia no 12(3). Medicinal and poisonous plants 3; Prosea Foundation: Bogor, p 102
Langstraat, A. 1976. Characteristics and composition of oil bearing materials. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 241-47.
Lim, T.K. 2012. Fruits in Edible medicinal and non-medicinal Plants; Springer: Netherlands.
Pryde, E.H. 1980. Composition of soybean oil, in Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 13–31.
Ribeiro, A., Castro, F., Carvalho, J. 2011. Influence of free fatty acid content in biodisel production on non edible oils In Proceeding: WASTES: Solutions, Treatments and Opportunities; European Environment Agency: Portugal.
Sahoo, P.K., Das, L.M., Babu, M.K.G., Naik, S.N. 2007. Biodiesel development from high acid value polanga seed oil and performance evaluation in a CI engine. Fuel. 86, 448–54.
Santacesaria, E., Vicente, G.M, Di Serio, M., Tesser. 2012. Main technologies in biodiesel production: state of the art and future challenges. Catal. Today.195, 2-13.
Umerie, S.C., Okonkwo, I.F., Nwadialor, N.A., Okonkwo, J.C. 2010. Studies on the oil and nutritive value of seeds of Crotalaria retusa L. (Fabaceae). Pakistan J. Nutr. 9, 912–4.