Review on Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) approach in spatial analysis


  • Ayuna Sulekan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Shariffah Suhaila Syed Jamaludin Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), Spatial Modelling, Spatial Non-stationarity.


 In spatial analysis, it is important to identify the nature of the relationship that exists between variables. Normally, it is done by estimating parameters with observations which taken from different spatial units that across a study area where parameters are assumed to be constant across space. However, this is not so as the spatial non-stationarity is a condition in which a simple model cannot explain the relationship between some sets of variables. The nature of the model must alter over space to reflect the structure within the data. Non-stationarity means that the relationship between variables under study varies from one location to another depending on physical factors of the environment that are spatially autocorrelated. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) is a technique in which it applied to capture the variation by calibrating a multiple regression model, which allows different relationships to exist at different points in space. A robust algorithm has been successfully used in spatial analysis. GWR can theoretically integrate geographical location, altitude, and other factors for spatial analysis estimations, and reflects the non-stationary spatial relationship between these variables. The main goal of this study is to review the potential of the GWR in modelling the spatial relationship between variables either dependent or independent and its used as the spatial prediction models. Based on the application of GWR such as house property indicates that GWR is the best model in estimating the parameters. Hence, from the GWR model, the significance of the variation can also be tested

Author Biographies

Ayuna Sulekan, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science

Shariffah Suhaila Syed Jamaludin, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science


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