Adsorption of gentamicin on surfactant-kaolinite and its antibacterial activity
Keywords:Antibacterial, gentamicin, kaolinite, organo-clay
Kaolinite is a common component of soils. It was found that the negatively charged kaolinite can act as an adsorbent material and it has the ability to adsorb antimicrobial agents. In this study, natural local kaolinite was used to adsorb gentamicin and cationic surfactant molecules as an improved antimicrobial agent. The gentamicin-loaded surfactant-kaolinite (GSK) was prepared by the attachment of cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) 4.0 mM on raw kaolinite creating surfactant-kaolinite (SK) and then, loaded with gentamicin sulphate (50 and 200 mg/L). Gentamicin-loaded kaolinite (GK) was also prepared and compared. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and CHNS elemental analysis. The characterization results proved that the framework structure of kaolinite was not disrupted after undergoing modification with the antimicrobial agents. The antibacterial activity of the samples was tested against Gram negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 11229) and Gram positive Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) through disc diffusion technique (DDT). In this test, raw kaolinite only exhibited antibacterial activity when HDTMA and/or gentamicin were loaded on kaolinite. In addition, GSK showed better antibacterial activity compared to GK and it performed better against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria. As conclusion, the immobilization of HDTMA on kaolinite proved that the kaolinite can act as an adsorbent to adsorb antibiotics and it has the potential to be developed as an enhanced antimicrobial agent.
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