An effect of physical exercise-induced fatigue on the vital sign parameters: A preliminary study


  • Zulkifli Ahmad School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  • Mohd Najeb Jamaludin School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
  • Kamaruzaman Soeed School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.



Vital signs, blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, exercise-induced fatigue


Vital sign monitoring is an important body measurement to identify health condition and diagnose any disease and illness. In sports, physical exercise will contribute to the changes of the physiological systems, specifically for the vital signs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of physical fatigue exercise on the vital sign parameters. This is significant for the fitness identification and prediction of each individual when performing an exercise. Five male subjects with no history of injuries and random BMI were selected from students of biomedical engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Based on the relationship between physical movement and physiology, the parameters considered were heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. Subjects were required to run on the treadmill at an initial speed of 4 km/h with an increase of 1 km/h at every 2 minutes interval. The effect of exercise was marked according to the fatigue protocol where the subject was induced to the maximum condition of performance. All parameters were measured twice, for pre and post exercise-induced protocol. The analysis of relationship of each parameter between pre and post fatigue was p<0.05. The results revealed that the heart rate and gap between blood pressure’s systolic and diastolic were greater for all categories except underweight, where the systolic blood pressure dropped to below 100mmHg at the end of exercise. Also, the body temperature was slightly declined to balance the thermoregulatory system with sweating. Hence, the vigorous physical movement could contribute to the active physiological system based on body metabolism. Heart rate and blood pressure presented significant effects from the fatiguing exercise whereas the body temperature did not indicate any distinguishable impact. The results presented might act as the basis of reference for physical exercise by monitoring the vital sign parameters.


Adams, W. M., Hosokawa, Y., Adams, E. L., Belval, L. N., Huggins, R. A., & Casa, D. J. (2016). Reduction in body temperature using hand cooling versus passive rest after exercise in the heat. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(13), 936-940.

Ahmad, Z., Jamaludin, M. N., & Omar, A. H. (2018). Development of wearable electromyogram for the physical fatigue detection during aerobic activity. Movement, Health & Exercise, 7(1), 15–25.

Asif, I. M., & Prutkin, J. M. (2015). Modern standards of ECG interpretation in young athletes: Yield and effectiveness. Journal of Electrocardiology, 48(3), 292–297.

Bellenger, C. R., Thomson, R. L., Howe, P. R. C., Karavirta, L., & Buckley, J. D. (2016). Monitoring athletic training status using the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(1), 590–595.

Caselli, S., Vaquer Segui, A., Quattrini, F., Di Gacinto, B., Milan, A., Assorgi, R., Pelliccia, A. (2016). Upper normal values of blood pressure response to exercise in Olympic athletes. American Heart Journal, 177, 120–128.

Chen, S.-W., Liaw, J.-W., Chang, Y.-J., Chuang, L.-L., & Chien, C.-T. (2015). Combined heart rate variability and dynamic measures for quantitatively characterizing the cardiac stress status during cycling exercise. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 63, 133–142.

Chester, J. G., & Rudolph, J. L. (2011). Vital signs in older patients: Age-related changes. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 12(5), 337–343.

Cruz, A. B. (2016). Abnormal blood pressure response to exercise in badminton athletes. Science and Sports, 31(6), 342–346.

Douglas, P. S., O’Toole, M. L., Hiller, W. D. B., Hackney, K., & Reichek, N. (1987). Cardiac fatigue after prolonged exercise. Circulation, 76(6), 1206–1213.

Gahche, J., Fakhouri, T., Carroll, D. D., Burt, V. L., Wang, C., & Fulton, J. E. (2014). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among U. S. youth aged 12 – 15 years : United States , 1999 – 2004 and 2012. NCHS Data Brief., 153, 1-8.

Gläser, S., Friedrich, N., Koch, B., Schäper, C., Völzke, H., Felix, S. B., Dörr, M. (2013). Exercise blood pressure and heart rate reference values. Heart Lung and Circulation, 22(8), 661–667.

Grazioli, G., Usin, D., Trucco, E., Sanz, M., Vidal, B., Montserrat, S., Sitges, M. (2015). Differentiating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from physiological left ventricular hypertrophy: An echocardiographic and ECG approach. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, May 2015 2, S197.

Itoh, H., Ajisaka, R., Koike, A., Makita, S., Omiya, K., Kato, Y., … Taniguchi, K. (2013). Heart rate and blood pressure response to ramp exercise and exercise capacity in relation to age, gender, and mode of exercise in a healthy population. Journal of Cardiology, 61(1), 71–78.

Jensen, M. T., Suadicani, P., Hein, H. O., & Gyntelberg, F. (2013). Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a 16-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study. Heart, 99(12), 882–887.

Liang, T., Yuan, Y. J., & Member, S. (2016). Wearable medical monitoring systems based on wireless networks : A Review. IEEE Sensors, 16(23), 8186–8199.

Ljunggren, M., Castrén, M., Nordberg, M., & Kurland, L. (2016). The association between vital signs and mortality in a retrospective cohort study of an unselected emergency department population. Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, 24(21), 1–11.

Lopez, G., Shuzo, M., Ushida, H., Hidaka, K., Yanagimoto, S., Imai, Y., … Yamada, I. (2010). Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life. Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, 4(1), 179–186.

Mazzoleni, M. J., Battaglini, C. L., Martin, K. J., Coffman, E. M., & Mann, B. P. (2016). Modeling and predicting heart rate dynamics across a broad range of transient exercise intensities during cycling. Sports Engineering, 19(2), 117–127.

McEntire, S. J., Smith, J. R., Ferguson, C. S., Brown, K. R., Kurti, S. P., & Harms, C. A. (2016). The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 230, 54–59.

Neves, E. B., Cunha, R. M., Rosa, C., Antunes, N. S., Felisberto, I. M. V., Vilaça-Alves, J., & Reis, V. M. (2016). Correlation between skin temperature and heart rate during exercise and recovery, and the influence of body position in these variables in untrained women. Infrared Physics and Technology, 75, 70–76.

Nurmi, J., Harjola, V., Nolan, J., & Castren, M. (2005). Observations and warning signs prior to cardiac arrest. Should a medical emergency team intervene earlier? Acta Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 49(5), 702–706.

Orchard, J., Semsarian, C., Freedman, B., & Neubeck, L. (2013). The AliveCor handheld heart monitor: Turning your iPhone into a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16, e61.

Petrėnas, A., Marozas, V., Jaruševičius, G., & Sörnmo, L. (2015). A modified Lewis ECG lead system for ambulatory monitoring of atrial arrhythmias. Journal of Electrocardiology, 48(2), 157–163.

Sharma, H., & Sharma, K. K. (2016). An algorithm for sleep apnea detection from single-lead ECG using Hermite basis functions. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 77, 116–124.

Tanda, G. (2016). Skin temperature measurements by infrared thermography during running exercise. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 71, 103–113.

Towey, C., Easton, C., Simpson, R., & Pedlar, C. (2016). Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia. Journal of Thermal Biology, 63, 124–130.

Tuka, V., Rosa, J., Dědinová, M., & Matoulek, M. (2015). The determinants of blood pressure response to exercise. Cor et Vasa, 57(3), e163–e167.

Weigert, M., Nitzsche, N., Kunert, F., Lösch, C., & Schulz, H. (2018). The influence of body composition on exercise-associated skin temperature changes after resistance training. Journal of Thermal Biology, 75(June), 112–119.

Yilmaz, T., Foster, R., & Hao, Y. (2010). Detecting Vital Signs with Wearable Wireless Sensors. Sensors, 10(12), 10837–10862.