Hydrophobic silica thin films by sol-gel processing and spin coating technique at low temperature


  • Nurul Huda Abu Bakar
  • Karim Deraman
  • R. Hussin
  • W. Nurulhuda W. Shamsuri
  • Faizal Mansor
  • Zuhairi Ibrahim
  • Bakar Ismail




self-cleaning, self-assembled, sol-gel,


Hydrophobic silica thin films were prepared by sol-gel processing and self-assembly by chemical vapor reaction with Trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) at low temperature. The sols were divided into Sol A with ethanol, Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and water (H2O) while Sol B were contain precursor of silica Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolyze with ethanol which was stirred for 15 minutes. HCl was added into the mixture and stirred for another 10 minutes. After deposition on 1 x 1 cm corning glass using spin coating technique (two-step timer), the films were heated at 60˚C for 10 minutes and finally annealed at 150°C for 1 hour. The films were characterized by using Rudolph/Auto EL Ellipsometer, Shimadzu Spectrophotometer, Perkin Elmer Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The results showed that the films thickness and refractive index were in the range of 105.2 to 112.4 nm and 1.35 to 1.38, respectively. The films were transmitted 70-80% of light (in visible range) with various bondings of C-H, Si-O-Si, Si-C and Si-OH. Surface roughness of the films was increased from 30.6 nm (silica thin film) to 140.5 nm (hydrophobic silica thin films) after modification have been done on the films by using TMCS (heated at 40˚C). It was found that the water contact angles increased when time of reaction increased from 109° to 124°.


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