Effect of sintering temperature of bauxite hollow fiber membrane on flexural strength and water permeability


  • Mohamad Izrin Mohamad Esham Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Ahmad Fauzi Ismail Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Mukhlis A Rahman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Juhana Jaafar Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Nurul Jannah Ismail Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




Natural bauxite, ceramic membrane, oilfield oily wastewater treatment


With abundant Malaysian bauxite minerals as the selected materials, hollow fiber ceramic membrane was fabricated for efficient production of high quality water from oil field oily wastewater. Effect of sintering temperature between 1250°C and 1450°C on membrane porosity, size of membrane pore, hydrophilicity, mechanical strength and water permeation were examined and the results were analyzed to determine the most suitable hollow fiber membrane for the application. Based on obtained findings, the most suitable sintering temperature was 1350°C. The acceptable strength and morphological behavior of finger-like and sponge-like voids were found to be advantageous characteristics for the fabricated bauxite hollow fiber membrane. Its pleasant structure with good outer and inner layers of separation might be beneficial for the oily wastewater purification applications.

Author Biographies

Mohamad Izrin Mohamad Esham, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Mukhlis A Rahman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Juhana Jaafar, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)

Nurul Jannah Ismail, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC)


Abadi, S. R. H., Sebzari, M. R., Hemati, M., Rekabdar, F., & Mohammadi, T. 2011. Ceramic membrane performance in microfiltration of oily wastewater. Desalination, 265(1–3), 222-228.

Abbasi, M., Mirfendereski, M., Nikbakht, M., Golshenas, M., & Mohammadi, T. 2010. Performance study of mullite and mullite–alumina ceramic MF membranes for oily wastewaters treatment. Desalination, 259 (1–3), 169-178.

Cao, J., Dong, X., Li, L., Dong, Y., & Hampshire, S. 2014. Recycling of waste fly ash for production of porous mullite ceramic membrane supports with increased porosity. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 34 (13), 3181-3194.

Dong, Y., Feng, X., Feng, X., Ding, Y., Liu, X., & Meng, G. 2008. Preparation of low-cost mullite ceramics from natural bauxite and industrial waste fly ash. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 460 (1–2), 599-606.

Dong, Y., Liu, X., Ma, Q., & Meng, G. 2006. Preparation of cordierite-based porous ceramic micro-filtration membranes using waste fly ash as the main raw materials. Journal of Membrane Science, 285 (1–2), 173-181.

Hubadillah, S. K., Othman, M. H. D., Harun, Z., Ismail, A. F., Rahman, M. A., Jaafar, J., Mohtor, N. H. 2017. Superhydrophilic, low cost kaolin-based hollow fibre membranes for efficient oily-wastewater separation. Materials Letters, 191, 119-122.

Li, L., Chen, M., Dong, Y., Dong, X., Cerneaux, S., Hampshire, S., Liu, J. 2016. A low-cost alumina-mullite composite hollow fiber ceramic membrane fabricated via phase-inversion and sintering method. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 36 (8), 2057-2066.

Li, L., & Lee, R. 2009. Purification of produced water by ceramic membranes: material screening, process design and economics. Separation Science and Technology, 44 (15), 3455-3484.

Li, Y. S., Yan, L., Xiang, C. B., & Hong, L. J. 2006. Treatment of oily wastewater by organic–inorganic composite tubular ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Desalination, 196 (1–3), 76-83.

Liu, S., Li, K., & Hughes, R. 2003. Preparation of porous aluminium oxide (Al2O3) hollow fibre membranes by a combined phase-inversion and sintering method. Ceramics International, 29 (8), 875-881.

Lü, Q., Dong, X., Zhu, Z., & Dong, Y. 2014. Environment-oriented low-cost porous mullite ceramic membrane supports fabricated from coal gangue and bauxite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 273, 136-145.

Mohtor, N.H., Othman, M.H.D., Ismail, A.F., Rahman, M.A., Jaafar, J., Hashim, N.A., 2017. Investigation on the effect of sintering temperature on kaolin hollow fibre membrane for dye filtration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24 (19), 15905-15917.

Paiman, S. H., Rahman, M. A., Othman, M. H. D., Ismail, A. F., Jaafar, J., & Aziz, A. A. 2015. Morphological study of yttria-stabilized zirconia hollow fibre membrane prepared using phase inversion/sintering technique. Ceramics International, 41 (10, Part A), 12543-12553.

Wei, C. C., Chen, O. Y., Liu, Y., & Li, K. 2008. Ceramic asymmetric hollow fibre membranes—One step fabrication process. Journal of Membrane Science, 320 (1–2), 191-197.