Preliminary studies on hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite from Malaysian kaolinite clays

Tijjani Abdullahi, Zawati Harun, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Khairul Nazri Yusof, Ainun Rahmawati, Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Mohd Amri Lajis, Yusri Yusof


The use of kaolin as a source of silica and alumina for synthesis of zeolite has been widely reported with various compositions and processing routes. However, since kaolin is highly influenced by geological origin and geographical formation, coupled with the processing method, two different crude kaolin were obtained at various locations in Peninsular Malaysia to serve as precursor for synthesis of zeolite. Hydrothermal treatments were made at reasonable low temperature of 90°C in an oven. The synthesized product was then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, to evaluate the potentials of the process and the product. The outcome of the analysis suggested that the breaking down of the clay structure and the armophization process can improve raw material reactivity. However, the crystallinity and composition of the crude kaolin together with appropriate incubation time can greatly influence the synthesis process and the product.


Zeolite, hydrothermal, kaolin, synthesis, Malaysia

Full Text:



M. Malaysia, "Malaysian Minerals Yearbook 2012," Minerals and Geoscience Department Malaysia, 2012.

K. S. Ariffin, H. A. Rahman, H. Hussin, and K. A. A. Hadi, "The genesis and characteristics of primary kaolinitic clay occurrence at Bukit Lampas, Simpang Pulai, Ipoh," Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia, vol. 54, 2008.

A. Chiang and K.-j. Chao, "Membranes and films of zeolite and zeolite-like materials," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 62, pp. 1899-1910, 2001.

T. Abdullahi, Z. Harun, and M. H. D. Othman, "A review on sustainable synthesis of zeolite from kaolinite resources via hydrothermal process," Advanced Powder Technology, 2017.

M. Gougazeh and J.-C. Buhl, "Synthesis and characterization of zeolite A by hydrothermal transformation of natural Jordanian kaolin," Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 35-42, 2014.

L. McCusker, F. Liebau, and G. Engelhardt, "Nomenclature of structural and compositional characteristics of ordered microporous and mesoporous materials with inorganic hosts (IUPAC Recommendations 2001)," Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 73, pp. 381-394, 2001.

E. Johnson and S. E. Arshad, "Hydrothermally synthesized zeolites based on kaolinite: A review," Applied Clay Science, vol. 97, pp. 215-221, 2014.

J. Lee, S. Han, and T. Hyeon, "Synthesis of new nanoporous carbon materials using nanostructured silica materials as templates," Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 14, pp. 478-486, 2004.

O. M. Yaghi, M. O'Keeffe, N. W. Ockwig, H. K. Chae, M. Eddaoudi, and J. Kim, "Reticular synthesis and the design of new materials," Nature, vol. 423, pp. 705-714, 2003.

D. Georgiev, B. Bogdanov, Y. Hristov, and I. Markovska, "Synthesis of NaA zeolite from natural kaolinite," Oxidation Communications, vol. 34, pp. 812-819, 2011.

E. A. Hildebrando, C. G. B. Andrade, C. A. F. d. Rocha Junior, R. S. Angélica, F. R. Valenzuela-Diaz, and R. d. F. Neves, "Synthesis and characterization of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste as a source of silicon and aluminum," Materials Research, vol. 17, pp. 174-179, 2014.

S. M. Holmes, S. H. Khoo, and A. S. Kovo, "The direct conversion of impure natural kaolin into pure zeolite catalysts," Green Chemistry, vol. 13, pp. 1152-1154, 2011.

S. Chandrasekhar and P. Pramada, "Investigation on the synthesis of zeolite NaX from Kerala kaolin," Journal of Porous Materials, vol. 6, pp. 283-297, 1999.

F. G. Colina and J. Llorens, "Study of the dissolution of dealuminated kaolin in sodium–potassium hydroxide during the gel formation step in zeolite X synthesis," Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 100, pp. 302-311, 2007.

C. S. Cundy and P. A. Cox, "The hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites: history and development from the earliest days to the present time," Chemical Reviews, vol. 103, pp. 663-702, 2003.

C. Belviso, F. Cavalcante, A. Lettino, and S. Fiore, "A and X-type zeolites synthesised from kaolinite at low temperature," Applied Clay Science, vol. 80, pp. 162-168, 2013.

H. Baioumy, "Mineralogical variations among the kaolin deposits in Malaysia," presented at the Annual International Conference on Geological and Earth Science, 2012.

S. Chandrasekhar, "Influence of metakaolinization temperature on the formation of zeolite 4A from kaolin," Clay Minerals, vol. 31, pp. 253-261, 1996.

H. Feng, C. Li, and H. Shan, "Effect of calcination temperature of kaolin microspheres on the in situ synthesis of ZSM-5," Catalysis Letters, vol. 129, pp. 71-78, 2009.

A. Madani, A. Aznar, J. Sanz, and J. Serratosa, "Silicon-29 and aluminum-27 NMR study of zeolite formation from alkali-leached kaolinites: influence of thermal preactivation," Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 94, pp. 760-765, 1990.

A. Elimbi, H. Tchakoute, and D. Njopwouo, "Effects of calcination temperature of kaolinite clays on the properties of geopolymer cements," Construction and Building Materials, vol. 25, pp. 2805-2812, 2011.

J. Kugbe, N. Matsue, and T. Henmi, "Synthesis of Linde type A zeolite–goethite nanocomposite as an adsorbent for cationic and anionic pollutants," Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 164, pp. 929-935, 2009.

M. M. Treacy and J. B. Higgins, Collection of simulated XRD powder patterns for zeolites fifth (5th) Revised Edition: Elsevier, 2007.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Tijjani Abdullahi, Zawati Harun, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Khairul Nazri Yusof, Ainun Rahmawati, Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Mohd Amri Lajis, Yusri Yusof

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2005-2019 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Disclaimer: This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this website.