Preliminary studies on hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite from Malaysian kaolinite clays


  • Tijjani Abdullahi Federal College of Education (Technical) P.M.B
  • Zawati Harun Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
  • Khairul Nazri Yusof Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Ainun Rahmawati Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Muhamad Zaini Yunos Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Mohd Amri Lajis Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
  • Yusri Yusof Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Ma



Zeolite, hydrothermal, kaolin, synthesis, Malaysia


The use of kaolin as a source of silica and alumina for synthesis of zeolite has been widely reported with various compositions and processing routes. However, since kaolin is highly influenced by geological origin and geographical formation, coupled with the processing method, two different crude kaolin were obtained at various locations in Peninsular Malaysia to serve as precursor for synthesis of zeolite. Hydrothermal treatments were made at reasonable low temperature of 90°C in an oven. The synthesized product was then analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, to evaluate the potentials of the process and the product. The outcome of the analysis suggested that the breaking down of the clay structure and the armophization process can improve raw material reactivity. However, the crystallinity and composition of the crude kaolin together with appropriate incubation time can greatly influence the synthesis process and the product.

Author Biographies

Tijjani Abdullahi, Federal College of Education (Technical) P.M.B

School of Technology Education

Zawati Harun, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Advanced Manufacturing and Material Center (AMMC), Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering

Khairul Nazri Yusof, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Advanced Manufacturing and Material Center (AMMC), Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Ainun Rahmawati, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Muhamad Zaini Yunos, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Mohd Amri Lajis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Yusri Yusof, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Ma

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering


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