Subcritical water extraction (SWE) of Zingiber zerumbet using two level full factorial design

Izzati Mohamad Abdul Wahab, Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin, Siti Nur Khairunisa Mohd Amir


Zingiber zerumbet was reported to has chemo preventive effects and was suggested as one of the therapeutic treatments for cancer. In this study, Z. zerumbet was extracted using subcritical water extraction (SWE) by employing two level full factorial design. 2 k full factorial design was employed using 18 runs with 10 repeats in central points. The independent variables factors were temperature (100-150°C), time (10-30 minutes) and material ratio (1:10 and 1:20 g/ml) for the evaluation of highest zerumbone concentration and overall yield of extracted Z. zerumbet. Effects of extraction temperature and time were found to be significant on all responses with p-value <0.05. However, the material ratio only gave significant effect on the zerumbone concentration and less significant on the yield. In addition, the value of curvature was found to be significant, thus indicating the relation between the independent variables and the response was linear. Therefore, it was found that the concentration of zerumbone and yield from Z. zerumbet extracted by SWE were significantly affected by temperature and time of extraction.


Subcritical water extraction, two level factorial design, yield, zerumbone, Zingiber zerumbet

Full Text:



Abdul, A. B., Al-Zubairi, A., Tailan, N., Wahab, S. I., Zain, Z. N., Ruslay, S., & Syam, M. (2008). Anticancer activity of natural compound (Zerumbone) extracted from Zingiber zerumbet in human HeLa cervical cancer cells. International Journal of Pharmacology, 4(3), 160–168.

Amin, A., Gali-Muhtasib, H., Ocker, M., & Schneider-Stock, R. (2009). Overview of major classes of plant-derived anticancer drugs. International Journal of Biomedical Science, 5(1), 1–11.

Awang, M. A., Azelan, N. A., Ain, N., Wan, A., Aziz, A., Hasham, R., … Bharu, J. (2014). Influence of processing parameters on the yield and 6-gingerol content of Zingiber officinale extract. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(11), 358–363.

Azelan, N. A., Hasham, R., Awang, M. A., Abd Malek, R., Musa, N. F., & Aziz, R. (2015). Antibacterial activity Zingiber officinale and Zingiber zerumbet essential oils extracted by using turbo extractor. Jurnal Teknologi, 3, 43–47.

Azian, M. N., Anisa, A. N. I., & Iwai, Y. (2014). Mechanisms of ginger bioactive compounds extract using soxhlet and accelerated water extraction. International Journal of Chemical, Materials Science and Engineering, 8(5), 438–442.

Baby, S., Dan, M., Thaha, A. R. M., Johnson, A. J., Kurup, R., Balakrishnapillai, P., & Lim, C. K. (2009). High content of zerumbone in volatile oils of Zingiber zerumbet from southern India and Malaysia. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2, 301–308.

Chaung, H.-C., Ho, C.-T., & Huang, T.-C. (2008). Anti-hypersensitive and anti-inflammatory activities of water extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 19(2), 117–129.

Eid, E. E. M., Abdul, A. B., Al-zubairi, A. S., & Aspollah, M. (2010). Validated high performance liquid chromatographic ( HPLC ) method for analysis of zerumbone in plasma. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9(8), 1260–1265.

Frey, D. D., Engelhardt, F., & Greitzer, E. M. (2003). A role for “one-factor-at-a-time” experimentation in parameter design. Research in Engineering Design, 14 (2), 65–74.

Garau, M. C., Simal, S., Femenia, A., & Rosselló, C. (2006). Drying of orange skin: Drying kinetics modelling and functional properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 75(2), 288–295.

Hasham @ Hisam, R., Sulaiman, N., Sarmidi, M. R., Aziz, R. A., & Che Pa, N. F. (2003). Extraction of oleoresin from Zingiber Zerumbet rhizome: Comparative study on yield, zerumbone and curcumin content. Proceedings of International Conference on Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, 1176–1179.

Herrero, M., Cifuentes, A., & Iban, E. (2006). Sub- and supercritical fluid extraction of functional ingredients from different natural sources: Plants, food-by-products, algae and microalgae A review. Food Chemistry, 98, 136–148.

Joana Gil-Chávez, G., Villa, J. A., Fernando Ayala-Zavala, J., Basilio Heredia, J., Sepulveda, D., Yahia, E. M., & González-Aguilar, G. A. (2013). Technologies for extraction and production of bioactive compounds to be used as nutraceuticals and food ingredients: An overview. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(1), 5–23.

Kader, G., Nikkon, F., Rashid, M. A., & Yeasmin, T. (2011). Antimicrobial activities of the rhizome extract of Zingiber zerumbet Linn. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1(5), 409–412.

Kumar, S. C. S., Srinivas, P., Negi, P. S., & Bettadaiah, B. K. (2013). Antibacterial and antimutagenic activities of novel zerumbone analogues. Food Chemistry, 141(2), 1097–1103.

Liang, X., & Fan, Q. (2013). Application of sub-critical water extraction in pharmaceutical industry. Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 01(05), 1–6.

Miller, D. J., & Hawthorne, S. B. (2000). Solubility of liquid organics of environmental interest in subcritical (hot/liquid) water from 298K to 473K. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, 45, 315–318.

Moektiwardoyo, M., Naspiah, N., & Iskandar, Y. (2016). Antiinflammatory activity of decoction of Lia berueng (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizomes, a herbal medicine using by Kutai sub- ethnic, eastern of Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human Journals, 6(3), 319-324.

Nag, A., Bandyopadhyay, M., & Mukherjee, A. (2013). Antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith rhizome. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2(3), 102–108.

Norfazlina, M., Zuraina, M. . F., N.F, R., Nazip, S. M., Rumiza, A. ., Zaila, C. S., Florinsiah, L. (2013). Cytotoxicity study of Nigella sativa and Zingiber zerumbet extracts, thymoquinone and zerumbone isolated on human myeloid leukemia (HL60) cell. The Open Conference Proceedings Journal, 4, 99–107.

Plaza, M., Amigo-Benavent, M., del Castillo, M. D., Ibáñez, E., & Herrero, M. (2010). Neoformation of antioxidants in glycation model systems treated under subcritical water extraction conditions. Food Research International, 43(4), 1123–1129.

Plaza, M., & Turner, C. (2015). Pressurized hot water extraction of bioactives. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 71, 39–54.

Rumiza, A. R., & Pihie, A. H. L. (2005). The antiprofilerative effect of Zingiber zerumbet extracts fractions on the growth of human breast carcinoma call lines. Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutial Sciences, 3(1), 45-52.

Sakinah, S. A. S., Handayani, S. T., & Hawariah, L. P. A. (2007). Zerumbone induced apoptosis in liver cancer cells via modulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Cancer Cell International, 7(4), 1-11.

Sarip, M. S. M., Morad, N. A., Ali, N. A. M., Yusof, Y. A. M., & Yunus, M. A. C. (2014). The kinetics of extraction of the medicinal ginger bioactive compounds using hot compressed water. Separation and Purification Technology, 124, 141–147.

Silva, E. M., Rogez, H., & Larondelle, Y. (2007). Optimization of extraction of phenolics from Inga edulis leaves using response surface methodology. Separation and Purification Technology, 55(3), 381–387.

Snyder, L. R., Kirkland, J. J. & Glajch, J. L. (2012). Practical HPLC method development. Wiley Interscience: New York, pp.1-14.

Teo, C. C., Tan, S. N., Yong, J. W. H., Hew, C. S., & Ong, E. S. (2010). Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). Journal of Chromatography A, 1217(16), 2484–2494.

Yodkeeree, S., Sung, B., Limtrakul, P., & Aggarwal, B. B. (2009). Zerumbone enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the induction of death receptors in human colon cancer cells: Evidence for an essential role of reactive oxygen species. Cancer Research, 69(16), 6581–6589.

Zakaria, Z. A., Mohamad, A. S., Chear, C. T., Wong, Y. Y., Israf, D. A., & Sulaiman, M. R. (2010). Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Zingiber zerumbet methanol extract in experimental model systems. Medical Principles and Practice, 19(4), 287–294.

Zakaria, Z. A., Yob, N. J., Jofrry, S. M., Affandi, M. M. R. M. M., Teh, L. K., & Salleh, M. Z. (2011). Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith: A review of its ethnomedicinal, chemical, and pharmacological uses. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Izzati Mohamad Abdul Wahab, Mariam Firdhaus Mad Nordin, Siti Nur Khairunisa Mohd Amir

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright © 2005-2019 Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Disclaimer: This website has been updated to the best of our knowledge to be accurate. However, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this website.