Emerging of cardiovascular metal stent: A review on drug-eluting stent towards the utilisation of herbal coating


  • Siti Khadijah Lukman
  • Rania Hussien Al-Ashwal
  • Ahmad Zahran Md. Khudzari
  • Syafiqah Saidin Faculty of Biosciences & Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5114-3453




Metal stent, drug-eluting stent, drug coating, cardiovascular


Metal stents used in the treatment of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have revolutionized in treating atherosclerosis disease. Starting from the emergence of bare metal stent (BMS), this stent has been progressively developed into drug-eluting stent (DES) and biodegradable stent. By focusing on DES, various drugs have been used to coat metal stent with the aims to overcome in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. Even though, both problems are covered successfully by DES, however, DES projects long term complications including late stent thrombosis and delayed endotheliasation. Therefore, the utilisation of various drugs and polymers as a coating material was reviewed in this study to identify possible alternative to overcome the current DES problems. Ginseng is one of the drugs which possess several beneficial properties for the development of DES. Review on its implementation in cardiovascular applications suggests its potential in promoting endotheliasation while inhibiting the growth of smooth muscle cell to prevent late stent thrombosis.

Author Biographies

Siti Khadijah Lukman

Biomaterials; Biomedical engineering, Surface engineering

Syafiqah Saidin, Faculty of Biosciences & Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Biomaterials; Biomedical engineering, Surface engineering


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