SEALiP: A simple and efficient algorithm for listing permutation via starter set method


  • Haslinda Ibrahim
  • Lugean Zake
  • Zurni Omar
  • Sharmila Karim



Permutation, Starter set, Lexicographic,


Algorithm for listing permutations for n elements is an arduous task. This paper attempts to introduce a novel method for generating permutations. The fundamental concept for this method is to seek a starter set to begin with as an initial set to generate all distinct permutations. In order to demonstrate the algorithm, we are keen to list the permutations with the special references for cases of three and four objects. Based on this algorithm, a new method for listing permutations is developed and analyzed. This new permutation method will be compared with the existing lexicographic method. The results revealed that this new method is more efficient in terms of computation time.


C.T. Fike, The Computer Journal, 18 (1) (1975) 21-22.

H. Ibrahim, Z. Omar, & A. M. Rohni, Modern Applied Science, 4 (2) (2010) 89-93.

D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, 4 (2005) 1-26.

D. H. Lehmer, Proceedings of Symposium Applied Mathemaitcs, Combinatorial Analysis, (1960) 179-193.

G. I. Mani, & G. Iye, Permutation generation using matrices. Retrieved on November 01, 2010, from

J. S. Rohl, The Computer Journal, 21 (4) (1978) 302-305.

L.M. Zake, New Algorithm for Determinant of Matrices Via Combinatorial Approach. (2011), Unpublished Thesis. Universiti Utara Malaysia

R. Sedgewick, Journal Computer Science of Applied Mathematics, 9 (1977) 137-164.

R.J. Ord-Smith, Part 1, The Computer Journal, 13 (1970) 152.

R.J. Ord-Smith, Part 2, The Computer Journal, 15 (1970) 136.