Heat transfer and mapping of THz radiation absorption in biological tissue using Mathematica based Simulink transform


  • Usman Malik University of Riau
  • Krisman Krisman University of Riau
  • Riad Syech University of Riau
  • Muhammad Hamdi University of Riau




Radiation, modeling, absorption, thermal mapping, biological tissue


This work is built on the Mathematica-Simulink transformed modeling which emphasizes on the rate of heat generation when occurs radiation absorption with low scattering in attenuation against tissue radial and axial depth. Experimental based data and prediction of thermal distribution owing to absorption has applied a closed-form system known in principle as an analogue computer model. There are assumptions which considered to modeling principle and sample conditions such as static tissue with no blood supply with response to homeostatic regulation of body temperature equilibrium. Thermal transfer of different power densities indicates that it penetrates the axial or radial depth with the small heat change difference for several types of tissue, i.e., skin, fat, tumor, and muscle. The results for time intervals of one second or longer show a steady-state centered about one temperature. By contrast, milliseconds to picoseconds time ranges display a small but significant temperature change as the depth varies correlated with the contrasting tissue structures. The dimensionless temperature used for finding indifference of tissue thermal characteristics that gives the heat mapping in different contours of the dimensionless temperature. This indicates that the THz regime has a good prospect for clinical purpose and medical therapy as well as imaging.

Author Biographies

Usman Malik, University of Riau

Medical  Physics, Biophysics Computation and Instrumentation, Physics Department

Krisman Krisman, University of Riau

Medical  Physics, Biophysics Computation and Instrumentation, Physics Department

Riad Syech, University of Riau

Medical  Physics, Biophysics Computation and Instrumentation, Physics Department

Muhammad Hamdi, University of Riau

Medical  Physics, Biophysics Computation and Instrumentation, Physics Department


Yoshida, A., Kagata, K., Yamada, T. 2010. Measurement of thermal effusivity of human skin using the photoacoustic method. International Journal of Thermophysics, 31(10), 2019-2029.

Irene B. V. M., David A. M., Eric R. B. 2009. Energy Transfer Systems Dynamics in Biomaterial. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p.256.

Modest, M. F. 2003. Radiation Heat Transfer, Second Edition. USA: Elsevier Science, p.105.

Alfano, R. R. 2005. The Supercontinuum Laser Source: Fundamentals with Updated References [2nd ed.].Springer, p257.

Yoshida, Z. 2010. Nonlinear Science: The Challenge of Complex Systems. First Edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p.56.

Yang, D.2007. Mossbauer Effect in Lattice Dynamics: Experimental Techniques and Applications. First Edition. Wiley-VCH, p.426.

Angeluts, A. A., Balakin, A. V., Evdokimov, M. G., Esaulkov, M. N., Nazarov, M. M., Ozheredov, I. A., Sapozhnikov, D. A., Solyankin, P. M., Cherkasova, O. P., Shkurinov, A. P. 2014. Characteristic responses of biological and nanoscale systems in the terahertz frequency range. Quantum Electronics, 44(7), 614-632.

Hua, C., Shi-Hua, M., Wen-Xing, Y., Xiu- Mei, W., Xiao-Zhou, W. 2013. The diagnosis of human liver cancer by using tHZ fiber-scanning near-field imaging. Chinese Physics Letters, 30(3), 3070-3012.

Luca, I., Z., Arduino, A., Bottauscio, O., Chiampi, M. 2014. Parametric analysis of transient skin heating induced by Terahertz radiation. Bioelectromagnetics, 35(5), 314-323.

Kim, E. 2004. Phthalocyanine Nanostructures. World Scientific Publishing Company, p.62.

Z. Wang. 2001. Physics with Maple: Computer Algebra for Mathematical Methods in physics. First Edition. Wiley-VCH, p.610.

Hoppe, W. Lohmann, W., Markl, H., Ziegler. H. 1983. Biophysics (First ed.). New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 276.

Ashley, J. Welch, Martin, J. C., Van Gemert. 2011. Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (First ed.). England: Springer, p. 259.

Lopez-Molina, J. A., Rivera, M. J., Trujillo, M., Burdío, F., Lequerica, J. L., Hornero, F., Berjano, E. J. 2008. Assessment of hyperbolic heat transfer equation in theoretical modeling for radiofrequency heating techniques. Biomedical Engineering Journal, 2, 22-27.

Waigh, T. A. 2007. Applied Biophysics a Molecular Approach for physical Scientists (First ed.). England: Copyright. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p1022.

Pickwell, E., Cole, B. E., Fitzgerald, A. J., Pepper, M., Wallace, V. P. 2014. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 49(9), 1595-607.

Quarrie, D. A. M. 1983. Quantum Chemistry (first ed.). England: Oxford University Press, p 209.

Lee, Y.-S. 2009. Principles of Terahertz Science and Technology (First ed.). England: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC, p.246.

Barton, J. K., Gossage, K. W., Xu, W., Ranger-Moore, J. R., Saboda, K., Brooks, C. A., Duckett, L. D., Salasche, S, J., Warneke, J. A., Alberts, D. S. 2003. Investigating sun-damaged skin and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography: A pilot study. Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, 2(6), 525-535.

Berry, E., Walker, G. C., Fitzgerald, A. J., Zinv’ev, N. N., Chamberlain, M., Smye, S. W., Miles, R. E., Smith, M. A. 2012. Do in vivo terahertz imaging systems comply with safety guidelines. Journal of Laser Applications, 15(3), 191-198.

Bruehlmeier, M,, Roelcke, U., Blauenstein, P., Missimer, J., Schubiger, P. A., Locher, J. T., Pellikka, R., Ametamey, S. M. 2003.

Measurement of the extracellular space in brain tumors using 76Br-bromide and PET. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 44(8), 1210-1218.

Caspers, P. J., Lucassen, G. W., Bruining, H. A., Puppels, G. J. 2010. Automated depth-scanning confocal raman microspectrometer for rapid in vivo determination of water concentration profiles in human skin. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, 31, 813-818.

Cole, B., E., Woodward, R. M., Crawley, D. A., ,Wallace, V. P., Arnone, D. D., Pepper, M. 2001. Terahertz imaging, spectroscopy of human skin in vivo. Proceedings of the SPIE, 4276, 1-10.

Fitzgerald, A. J., Berry, E, Zinov'ev, N, N., Homer-Vanniasinkam, S., Miles, R. E., Chamberlain, J. M., Smith, M. A. 2003. Catalogue of human tissue optical properties at terahertz frequencies. Journal of Biological Physics, 129(2-3), 123-128.

Han, P. Y., Cho, G. C., Zhang, X.-C. 2013. Time-domain transillumination of biological tissues with terahertz pulses. Optics Letters, 25(4), 242-244.

Hou, D., Li, X., Cai, J., Ma, Y., Kang, X., Huang, P., Zhang, G. 2014. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of human gastric normal and tumor tissues. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 59(18), 5423-5440.

Jafarieh, H. Yea. 2007. Technoloy transfer to developing countries: A quantitative approach. University of Salford, p.567.

Johnson, J. L., Dorney, T. D., Mittleman, D. M.2001. Interferometric imaging with terahertz pulses. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 7(4), 592-599.

Kim, A. D. 2004. Transport theory for light propagation in biological tissue. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 21(5), 820-827.

Klarskov, P., Clark, S. J, Jepsen, P. U. 2014. Modeling of ultrafast THz interactions in molecular crystals. Proceedings Volume 8984, Ultrafast Phenomena and Nanophotonics XVIII; 89840D. San Francisco, California, United States, p.1033.

Kleine-Ostmann, T., Jastrow, C., Baaske, K., Heinen, B., Schwerdtfeger, M., Kärst, U., Hintzsche, H., Stopper, H., Koch, M., Schrader, T. 2014. Field exposure and dosimetry in the THz frequency range. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 4(1), 21-25.

Knobloch, P., Schildknecht, C., Kleine-Ostmann, T., Koch, M., Hoffmann, S., Hofmann, M., Rehberg, E., Sperling, M., Donhuijsen, K., Hein, G., Pierz, K. 2002. Medical THz imaging: An investigation of histo- pathological samples. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 47(21), 3875-3884.

Loffler, T., Siebert, K., Czasch, S., Bauer, T., Roskos, . G. 2002. Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging. Physics in Medicine & Biology, 47(21), 3847–3852.

Matti Hotokka, E. J. B., Gerardo, J. M., -Barrio, D. 2013. Advances in quantum methods and applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. Volume 27 Molecular Theory of Graphene. Springer-Verlag, p. 249-284.

Movasaghi, Z., Rehman, S., Rehman, I. U. 2008. Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy of biological tissues. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 43(2), 134-179.

Oh, S. J., Kim, S.-H., Jeong, K., Park, Y., Huh, Y.-M., Son, J.-H., Suh, J.-S. 2013. Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 21(18), 212-215.

Parrott, E. P., Sy, S. M., Blu, T., Wallace, V. P., Pickwell-Mac Pherson, E. 2011. Terahertz pulsed imaging in vivo: Measurements and processing methods. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 16(10), 106-110.

Peter, B. S., Yngvesson, S., Siqueira, P., Kelly, P., Khan, A., Glick, S., Karellas, A. 2013. Development and testing of a single frequency terahertz imaging system for breast cancer detection. IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 3(4), 374-386.

Reid, C. B., Reese, G., Gibson, A. P., Wallace, V. P. 2013. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of human blood. IEEE. Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 17(4), 774-778.

Sakami, M., Mitra, K. M., Hsu, P.-F. 2012. Analysis of light pulse transport through two- dimensional scattering and absorbing media. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 73(2-5), 169-179.

Saviz, M., Spathmann, O., Streckert, J., Hansen, V., Clemens, M., Dana, R. F. 2013. Theoretical estimations of safety thresholds for terahertz exposure of surface tissues IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science ond Technology, 3(5), 635-640.

Scherer, P. O. J., Fischer, S. F. 2010. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics (First ed.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 456.

Shiraga, K., Ogawa, Y., Suzuki, T., Kondo, N., Irisawa, A., Imamura, M. 2014. Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region. Journal of Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, 35(5), 493-502.

Sonka, M., Hlavac, V., R. Boyle, R. 1999. Image Processing, Analysis and Machine Vision (Second ed.). Paci Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, p.379.

Wang, Z., S. M. I. 2001. Generation of terahertz radiation via nonlinear optical methods. IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Remote Sensing, 1(1), 1-5.

Xu, M., Alfano, R. R. 2005. Fractal mechanisms of light scattering in biological tissue and cells. Optics Letters, 30(22), 3051-3053.

Xue, P., Mak, C., Cheung, H. 2014. New static lightshelf system design of clerestory windows for Hong kong. Building and Environment, 72, 368-376.

Yang, D., Converse, M. C., Mahvi, D. M., Webster, J. G. 2007. Expanding the bioheat equation to include tissue internal water evaporation during heating. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 54(8), 1382 - 1388.

Yue, K., Zhang, X., Yu, F. 2007. Simultaneous estimation of thermal properties of living tissue using noninvasive method. International Journal of Thermophysics, 28(5), 1470-1489.

Zaytsev, K. I., Kudrin, K. G., Koroleva, S. A., Fokina, I. N., Volodarskaya, S. I., Novitskaya, E. V., Perov, A. N., Karasik, V. E, Yurchenko, S. O. 2014. Medical diagnostics using terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. Journal of Physics, 486, 012-014.

Kindt, J. T., Schmuttenmaer, C. A. 1996. Far infrared dielectric properties of polar liquids probed by femtosecond terahertz pulse spectroscopy, Journal of Physical Chemistry ,100(24), 10373-10379.

Zhang, X. -C. 2002. Terahertz wave imaging: Horizons and hurdles. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 47, 3667–3677.