Assessment of metal pollution using enrichment factor (EF) and pollution load index (PLI) in sediments of selected Terengganu rivers, Malaysia


  • Nor Sayzwani Sukri University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Siti Amirah Aspin University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Nurul Liyana Kamarulzaman University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Nurul Fazlina Jaafar University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Nor Shahida Shafiee @ Ismail University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Siti Hajar Yaacob University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Farah Khaliz Kedri University of Malaysia Kelantan
  • Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria University of Malaya



Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Load Index (PLI), sediment


Anthropogenic activities that happen in Terengganu River were contributed to sediment pollution at that area.  The sediment pollution occurred when sediment are additional influenced with chemical adsorption between the metals, grain size, and organic matter. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the metal pollution using Enrichment Factor (EF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) and compared with the previous study. A total of 15 sediment samples were collected from 5 different rives and metal concentration were analyzed using flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (ASS). The metal concentration ranged as followed: Cr (0.48-12.80 mg/kg), Cu (0.38-15.20 mg/kg), Mg (202.00-2769.00mg/kg), K (63.36-1730.00 mg/kg), Mn (4.27-33.70 mg/kg), Zn (2.05-31.30 mg/kg) and Cl (141.00-584.00 mg/kg) respectively. Enrichment Factor (EF) and Pollution Load Index (PLI) were used as a pollution indicator to access the sediment pollution in selected Terengganu Rivers. The mean Enrichment Factor (EF) value indicated in decrease order Cl (34.70) > Zn (23.44) > Cu (10.37) > Cr (1.95) > K (1.58) > Mg (1.16)> Mn (0.87). Meanwhile, Pollution Load Index (PLI) value showed below than 1 in all sampling stations. When compared with previous study, Mg  and Cl metals need to take further action due to dramatically increased within seven years. The output from this study will be useful for environmental management at Terengganu Rivers. 

Author Biographies

Nor Sayzwani Sukri, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Siti Amirah Aspin, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Nurul Liyana Kamarulzaman, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Nurul Fazlina Jaafar, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Nor Shahida Shafiee @ Ismail, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Siti Hajar Yaacob, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Farah Khaliz Kedri, University of Malaysia Kelantan

Faculty of Earth Science

Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria, University of Malaya

Institute of Ocean and Earth Science


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