Release of curcumin incorporated in albumin loaded silica


  • Shafiyah Pondi
  • Leaw Wai Loon
  • Sheela Chandren
  • Hadi Nur Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia



Silica, Albumin, Curcumin, Co–carrier, Composition, Release mechanism, Intermolecular interaction,


In this work, we have prepared a new drug delivery system consisting of silica (SiO2) as the main carrier, while albumin acted as the co–carrier in order to control the release of drug. The system was prepared by simple wet chemical method. The efficiency of the designed system was tested in the delivery of a hydrophobic drug, curcumin through an in–vitro procedure. The results show that the release percentage of curcumin was increased with the presence of the co–carrier. The intermolecular interaction of curcumin with albumin and the competition between them to locate on the surface of silica affect the release system. Besides, the curcumin release amount was corresponded to the composition of the silica carrier in the systems. Consequently, the potential for silica/albumin use as a drug carrier was ascertained.

Author Biography

Hadi Nur, Center for Sustainable Nanomaterials (CSNano), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Hadi Nur was born on the 6th of May 1969. He is specialized in advanced materials and heterogeneous catalysis. His main field in undergraduate and graduate studies was in chemistry and materials engineering at the Institut Teknologi Bandung. He obtained his B.S. and M.Eng. (cum laude) degrees in 1992 and 1995, repectively. Shortly after that, he continued his postgraduate studies in zeolite chemistry at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) as he received his Ph.D. degree in 1998. His postdoctoral studies started with a year as a UTM Postdoctoral Fellow, and with two years as a Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) Postdoctoral Fellow at Catalysis Research Center (CRC), Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan. He continued there as a Center of Excellence (COE) Visiting Researcher at CRC for half a year. In May 2002, he joined the Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. He was a visiting scientist at the Institute for Heterogeneous Materials Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany from July to September 2015. Currently, he is a full professor at UTM. He has supervised many postgraduate students studying for Ph.D. and M.S. degrees in heterogeneous catalysis and advanced materials, for example, zeolite chemistry and catalysis, photocatalysis, semiconductor nanoparticle-polymer composite, bifunctional oxidative, and acidic catalysts and phase-boundary catalysis. Currently, he and his family enjoy living in Johor Bahru area and are glad that they made the move.


Aswathy, R.G., Sivakumar, B., Brahatheeswaran, D., Fukuda, T., Yoshida, Y., Maekawa, T., Kumar, D.S. 2012. Biocompatible fluorescent zein nanoparticles for simultaneous bioimaging and drug delivery application. Adv. Nat. Sci.: Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 3, 1–7.

Barbe, C., Barlett, J., Kong, L., Kim, F., Lin, H. Q., Calleja, G. 2004. Silica particles: a novel drug delivery system. Adv. Mater. 16, 1–18.

Chereddy, K. K., Coco, R., Memvaga, P. B., Ucakar, B., Rieux, A. Vandermeulen, G., Préat, V. 2013. Combined effect of PLGA and curcumin on wound healing activity. J. Control. Release 171, 208–215.

Diab, R., Canilho, N., Pavel, I. A., Haffner, F. B., Girardon, M., Pasc, A. 2017. Silica–based systems for oral delivery of drugs, macromolecules and cells. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 249, 346–362.

Elzoghby, A.O., Samy, W.M., Elgindy, N.A. 2012. Protein–based Nanocarriers as Promising Drug and Gene Delivery Systems. J. Control. Release 161, 38–49.

Fu, K., Griebenow, Hsieh, L., Klibanov, A. M., Langer, R. 1999. FTIR characterization of the secondary structure of proteins encapsulated within PLGA microspheres. J. Control. Release 58, 357–366.

Gangwar, R.K., Tomar, G.B., Dhumale, V.A., Zinjarde, S., Sharma, R. B., Datar, S. 2013. Curcumin conjugated silica nanoparticles for improving bioavailability and its anticancer applications. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61, 9632–9637.

Hatamie. S., Nouri, M., Karandikar, S.K., Kulkarni, A., Dhole, S.D., Phase, D.M., Kale. S.N. 2012. Complexes of cobalt nanoparticles and polyfunctional curcumin as antimicrobial agents. Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 32, 92–97.

Higuchi, T. 1963. Theoretical analysis of rate of release of solid drugs dispersed in solid matrices. J. Pharm. Sci. 52(12), 1145–1149.

Horcajada, P., Serre, C., Vallet–Regi, M., Gerard, F. 2006. Metal–organic frameworks as efficient materials for drug delivery. Angew. Chem. 118, 6120–6124.

Ibrahim, I.A.M., Zikry, A.A.F., A.Sharaf, M. 2010. Preparation of spherical silica nanoparticles: Stöber silica. J. Am. Sci. 6, 985–989.

Jithan, AV., Madhavi, K., Madhavi, M., Prabhakar, K. 2011. Preparation and characterization of albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin intended for the treatment of breast cancer. Int. J. Pharm. Invest. 1, 119–125.

Kong, J., Yu, S. 2007. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of protein secondary structures. Acta Biochm. Biophy. Sin. 39(8), 549–559.

Kumar, K. V., Khaddour, I. A., Gupta,V. K. 2010. A pseudo second–order kinetic expression for dissolution kinetic profiles of solids in solutions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 49, 7257–7262.

Leung, M., Harada, T., Dai, S., Kee, T.W. 2015. Nanoprecipitation and spectroscopic characterization of curcumin–encapsulated polyester nanoparticles. Langmuir. 31, 11419–11427.

Mathew, A., Fukuda, T., Nagaoka, Y., Hasumura, T., Morimoto, H., Yoshida, Y., Maekawa, T., Venugopal, K., Kumar, D. S. 2012. Curcumin loaded PLGA nanoparticles conjugated with Tet–1 peptide for potential use in Alzheimer’s disease. PLOS ONE. 7(3), 1–10.

Mhlanga, N., Ray, S. S. 2015. Kinetic models for the release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin from biodegradable Polylactide/metal oxide–based hybrids. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 72, 1301–1307.

Mohanta, V., Madras, G., Patil, S. 2013. Albumin–mediated incorporation of water–insoluble therapeutics in layer–by–layer assembled thin films and microcapsules. J. Mater. Chem. 1, 4819–4827.

Nafisi, S., Sadeghi, G.B., Panahy, A. 2011. Interaction of aspirin and vitamin c with bovine serum albumin. J. Photochem. Photobiol., B. 105, 198–202.

Popat, A., Liu, J., Lua, G.Q., Qiao, S.Z. 2012. A pH–responsive drug delivery system based on chitosan coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles. J. Mater. Chem. 1–6.

Quintanar–Guerrero, D., Ganem–Quintanar,A., Nava–Arzaluz, M. G., Piñón–Segundo, E. 2009. Silica xerogels as pharmaceutical drug carrier. Expert Opin. Drug Delivery. 6(5), 485–498.

Siepmann, J., A. Siegel, R., Rathbone, M.J. 2012. Fundamentals and Applications of Controlled Release Drug Delivery. Advances in Delivery Science and Technology. Springer.

Steven, C. R., Busby, G. A., Mather, C., Tariq, B., Briuglia, M. L., Lamprou, D. A., Urquhart, A. J., Grant, M.H., Parthwardhan, S. H. 2014. Bioinspired silica as drug delivery systems and their biocompatibility. J. Mater. Chem. B. 2, 5028–5042.

Thomas, C., Pillai, L.S., Krishnan, L. 2014. Evaluation of albuminated curcumin as soluble drug form to control growth of cancer cells in vitro. J. Cancer Ther. 5, 723–734.

Wilson, C. G., Crowley, P. J. 2011. Controlled Release in Oral Drug Deliver. New York: Springer.

Yadav, D., Kumar, N. 2014. Nanonization of curcumin by antisolvent precipitation: process development, characterization, freeze drying and stability performance. Int. J. Pharm. 477(1–2), 564–577.