Gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid composition in the fresh water fishes in North Sulawesi


  • Julius Pontoh Sam Ratulangi University
  • Drayen Tumiwa Sam Ratulangi University



Fatty acid, freshwater fish, gas chromatography


Fresh water fish is one of the nutritious food sources for the people in Indonesia including in North Sulawesi.  Other than its protein, the fish oil has an important source of energy as well as nutraceutical of the people.  Some fatty acids, especially omega three fatty acids have been known for their function in prevention of some artery diseases.  There is not so much information available about the fatty acid composition in the fresh water fishes.  Therefore, the purposes of this research are to determine the present of fatty acids and their composition in the fresh water fishes.  The fish samples including, tilapia (mujair), carp (ikan mas), catfish (lele), snakehead (gabus) have been collected from various parts in North Sulawesi.  Fatty acids were identified using standard fatty acid mix and measured for their concentration using gas chromatographic technique.  The main fatty acids are following to their abundancy: oleic acid varies from 27.24 % for snakehead to 42.22 % for catfish; palmitic acid varies from 22.32 % for carp to 26.91 % for snakehead fish; and linolenic acid varies from 11.89 % for snakehead to 22.46 % for carp.  Among the fresh water fishes, the snakehead fish has a unique fatty acid composition, it has high concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, DHA).


Bligh, E. G., Dryer, W. J. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol. 37, 911-917.

Chasanah, E., M. Nurilmala, A. R. Purnamasari, Fithriani, D. 2015. Chemical composition, albumin content and bioactivity of extract protein of native and cultured snakehead. (in Indonesian). JPB Kelautan dan Perikanan 10(2), 123-132.

Fallahab, A. A., Nematollahi, A., Saei-Dehkordiab, S. 2013. Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of edible tissues of Capoeta damascina (Valenciennes, 1842) reared in freshwater and brackish water. J. Food Comp. Anal. 32, 150-154.

Indonesian Ministry of Marine and Fishery. 2017. Fish Consumption Number 2010-2015 (Angka Konsumsi Ikan 2010-2015),

Kaur, N., Chugh, V., Gupta, A. K. 2014. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods - A review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51(10), 2289-2303.

Mohanty, B. P. Ganguly, S., Mahanty, A., Sankar, T. V., Anandan, R., Chakraborty, K., Paul, B. N., Sarma, D., Dayal. J. S., Venkateshwarlu, G., Mathew, S., Asha, K. K., Karunakaran, D., Mitra, T., Chanda, S., Shahi, N., Das, P., Akhtar, M. S., Vijayagopal, P., Sridhar, N. 2016.

DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 food fishes from India. BioMed Res. Inter. 2016, Article ID 4027437.

Muhamad, N. A., Mohamad, J. 2012. Fatty acid composition of selected Malaysian fishes. Sains Malaysiana 41(1), 81-94.

Ngadiarti, I. C., Kusharto, M., Briawan, D., Marliyati, S. A., Sayuthi, D. 2013. Fatty acid contents and physico-chemical characterization of catfish oil and fermented catfish oil. Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan 36(1), 82-90.

Ozogul, Y. A., Ozogul, F. O, Cicek, E., Polat, A., Kuley, E. 2009. Fat content and fatty acid compositions of 34 marine water fish species from the Mediterranean Sea. Int. J. Food Sci. Nut. 60(6), 464-475.

Pontoh, J. 2016. Gas chromatographic analysis of medium chain fatty acids in coconut oil. J. Pure App. Chem. Res. 5(3), 157-161.

Pratama, R. I., Awaluddin, M. Y., Ishmayana, S. 2011. Composition of fatty acids in tongkol, layur and tenggiri from Pameungpeuk, Garut. Jurnal Akuatika 2 (2).

Ramli, S. S., Zaidul, L. S., Abdul Manap, M. Y., Mohamed, S. N. 2015. Comparison studies of fatty acids profiles extracted from selected Malaysian seawater and freshwater fish wastes. Proceedings of the IRES 23rd International Conference, Dubai, UEA 29th December 2015, 13-18.

Singh, S., Arora, R. R., Singh, M., Khosia, S. 2016. Eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid as option for vascular risk prevention: A fish history. Am. J. Therapeutic. 23(3), 905-910.

Sorin R. Bratu, A., Mihalache, M., Hanganu, A., Chira, N. A., Todasca, M. C., 2013. Quantitative determination of fatty acids from fish oil using GC-MS method and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. U.P.B. Sci. Bull., Series B. 75 (2).

Tanaty, M., Pontoh, J., Fatimah, F. 2016. Optimization of GC Shimadzu-2014 for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. (In Indonesian). Jurnal MIPA Unstrat Online 5(1), 6-9.

Toyomizu, M, Tomiyasu, Y. 1962. Analysis of fatty acid composition of fish oil by gas-liquid chromatography. Bul. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fisheries. 28 (5), 526-533.

Vlieg, P., Body, D. R. 1988. Lipid contents and fatty acid composition of some New Zealand freshwater finfish and marine finfish, shellfish, and roes. N. Z. F. Marine Freshwater Res. 22, 151-162.