An experimental analysis on the performance of single mode-multimode-single mode and multimode- single mode-multimode fiber optic sensor


  • Hanim Abdul Razak Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM



Fiber optic sensor, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), single mode-multimode-single mode (SMS), multimode-single mode-multimode (MSM),


A cost effective and simple fabrication process for Mach Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) fiber based sensor has been proposed based on single mode-multimode-single mode structure and multimode-single mode-multimode. These proposed structures employed a standard fusion arc splicing by varying the length of sensing region instead of the structures. This sensor has been experimentally demonstrated for three different concentration of solutions such as water, 1mol sucrose solution and oil with the refractive index of 1.333, 1.384 and 1.464 respectively. Furthermore, the intention of this experiment is to determine which structure that provides superior performance in terms of the sensitivity of the device. The operating wavelength of different structures corresponds to the different refractive index. It is observed that the shifting response was influenced by the length of the sensing-area and the best sensitivity achieved for is -10.45nm/RIU.

Author Biography

Hanim Abdul Razak, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM

Faculty of Electronic and Computer Engineering (FKEKK)


Y. Dai, “Highly sensitive liquid-level sensor based on weak uniform fiber Bragg grating with narrow-bandwidth,” Opt. Eng., vol. 51, no. 4, p. 44401, 2012.

X. Hao, Z. Tong, W. Zhang, and Y. Cao, “A Fiber Laser Temperature Sensor based on SMF Core-offset Structure,” Opt. Commun., vol. 335, pp. 78–81, 2015.

S. Yuan, Z. Tong, J. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Cao, “High temperature fiber sensor based on spherical-shape structures with high sensitivity,” Opt. Commun., vol. 332, pp. 154–157, 2014.

R. Guyard, D. Leduc, Y. Lecieux, and C. Lupi, “Superposition of fiber Bragg and LPG gratings for embedded strain measurement,” Comptes Rendus Phys., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1027–1037, 2016.

I.-L. Bundalo, R. Lwin, S. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “All-plastic fiber-based pressure sensor,” Appl. Opt., vol. 55, no. 4, p. 811, 2016.

S. Azad, E. Sadeghi, R. Parvizi, A. Mazaheri, and M. Yousefi, “Sensitivity optimization of ZnO clad-modified optical fiber humidity sensor by means of tuning the optical fiber waist diameter,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 90, no. September 2016, pp. 96–101, 2017.

L. Cai, Y. Zhao, and X.-G. Li, “Applications of Modal Interferences in Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Mismatch Methods,” Instrum. Sci. Technol., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2014.

G. An et al., “Extra-broad Photonic Crystal Fiber Refractive Index Sensor Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance,” Plasmonics, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 465–471, 2017.

Q. Wang, C. Li, C. Zhao, and W. Li, “Guided-mode-leaky-mode-guided-mode fiber interferometer and its high sensitivity refractive index sensing technology,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1–11, 2016.

A. D. Gomes and O. Frazão, “Mach-Zehnder Based on Large Knot Fiber Resonator for Refractive Index Measurement,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1279–1281, 2016.

Y. Ma et al., “Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on a sandwich fiber structure for refractive index measurement,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 2081–2085, 2012.

T. K. Yadav, R. Narayanaswamy, M. H. Abu Bakar, Y. M. Kamil, and M. a. Mahdi, “Single mode tapered fiber-optic interferometer based refractive index sensor and its application to protein sensing,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, no. 19, p. 22802, 2014.

H. Tazawa, T. Kanie, and M. Katayama, “Fiber-optic coupler based refractive index sensor and its application to biosensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 91, no. 11, pp. 10–13, 2007.

A. K. Mishra, S. K. Mishra, and A. P. Singh, “Giant Infrared Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Refractive Index Sensor,” Plasmonics, pp. 1–8, 2017.

H. Wei, Y. Zhu, and S. Krishnaswamy, “Optofluidic Photonic Crystal Fiber Coupler for Measuring the Refractive Index of Liquids,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 103–106, 2016.

R. K. Gangwar and V. K. Singh, “Highly Sensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance Based D-Shaped Photonic Crystal Fiber Refractive Index Sensor,” Plasmonics, pp. 1–6, 2016.

B. H. Lee et al., “Interferometric fiber optic sensors,” Sensors, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 2467–2486, 2012.

E. Vargas-Rodriguez et al., “Analytical modelling of a refractive index sensor based on an intrinsic micro Fabry-Perot interferometer.,” Sensors (Basel)., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 26128–42, 2015.

D. Jáuregui-Vázquez et al., “An all fiber intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on an air-microcavity,” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 6355–6364, 2013.

D. Wu, T. Zhu, Guo-Yin Wang, Jian-Yu Fu, X.-G. Lin, and G.-L. Gou, “Intrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on arc discharge and single-mode fiber.,” Appl. Opt., vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 2670–5, 2013.

J. Zhou et al., “Intensity modulated refractive index sensor based on optical fiber Michelson interferometer,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem., vol. 208, pp. 315–319, 2015.

S. Zhang, T. Yuan, and L. Yuan, “Asymmetrical twin-core fiber based Michelson interferometer for environmental refractive index sensing,” vol. 10323, p. 1032377, 2017.

Y. C. Liang, C. C. Liao, and Y. L. Lo, “Abrupt taper Michelson interferometer using heterodyne for measuring refractive index,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 23, pp. 2330–2333, 2014.

J. Kang, X. Dong, C. Zhao, and Y. Zhao, “A sagnac loop sensor for refractive index measurement,” 2011 Symp. Photonics Optoelectron. SOPO 2011, pp. 0–3, 2011.

X. hu Fu et al., “A tension insensitive PbS fiber temperature sensor based on Sagnac interferometer,” Optoelectron. Lett., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 135–137, 2017.

T. Schubert, N. Haase, and H. Ktick, “Refractive-index measurements using an integrated Mach-Zehnder interferorneter,” Sensors And Actuators, vol. 60, no. 100, pp. 108–112, 1997.

X. Sun et al., “A robust high refractive index sensitivity fiber Mach – Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser machining and chemical etching,” Sensors Actuators A. Phys., vol. 230, pp. 111–116, 2015.

H. Wang et al., “Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature based on asymmetric structures modal interference,” Opt. Commun., vol. 364, pp. 191–194, 2016.

J. Harris, P. Lu, H. Larocque, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “In-fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric refractive index sensors with guided and leaky modes,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem., vol. 206, pp. 246–251, 2015.

Hao Sun et al., “Temperature and refractive index sensing characteristics of an MZI-based multimode fiber-dispersion compensation fiber-multimode fiber structure,” Opt. Fiber Technol., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 425–429, 2012.

J. Wo et al., “Refractive index sensor using microfiber-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett., vol. 37, no. 1, p. 67, 2012.

Z. Xu, Q. Sun, J. Wo, Y. Dai, X. Li, and D. Liu, “Volume strain sensor based on spectra analysis of in-fiber modal interferometer,” IEEE Sens. J., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2139–2145, 2013.

Q. Wu et al., “Fiber refractometer based on a fiber Bragg grating and single-mode–multimode–single-mode fiber structure,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 12, p. 2197, 2011.

Y. Zhao, L. Cai, X. G. Li, and F. C. Meng, “Liquid concentration measurement based on SMS fiber sensor with temperature compensation using an FBG,” Sensors Actuators, B Chem., vol. 196, pp. 518–524, 2014.